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Bradley P. Goodwin, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Aaron B. Wilson, Stacy E. Porter, and M. Roxana Sierra-Hernandez

South America ( Fogt 2007 ; Eichler and Gottschalck 2013 ). Thus, the combination of the SAM and ENSO and their associated modulation of SH storm tracks ( Fogt et al. 2011 ; Schneider et al. 2012 ) influence accumulation on the AP. In addition to the SAM and ENSO, the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) also influences the climate of the AP. Often described as “ENSO like” decadal-scale variability in the North Pacific ( Zhang et al. 1997 ), Mantua et al. (1997) coined the term “PDO” to describe an

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Xiaofang Feng, Qinghua Ding, Liguang Wu, Charles Jones, Ian Baxter, Robert Tardif, Samantha Stevenson, Julien Emile-Geay, Jonathan Mitchell, Leila M. V. Carvalho, Huijun Wang, and Eric J. Steig

-frequency natural variability over these areas in the past decades, remains uncertain. Recent studies have noted that global atmospheric circulation driven by low-frequency tropical sea surface temperature (SST) variability may be essential to explain changes in the Arctic, Antarctic, and midlatitudes in the past century ( Schneider and Steig 2008 ; Trenberth et al. 2014 ; Deser et al. 2017 ; Meehl et al. 2018 ). However, how tropical SST regulates extratropical climate on multidecadal time scales over an

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Xichen Li, David M. Holland, Edwin P. Gerber, and Changhyun Yoo

time. We have verified that this does not affect our linear regression results. The SST trend as well as its spatial–temporal variability retrieved from the HadISST dataset is further validated using the Kaplan extended SST data version 2 ( Kaplan et al. 1998 ). The two datasets show consistent trends and variability, so the results from the Kaplan SST data are not shown in this paper. During the last three decades, the tropical Pacific SST trend exhibits a dipole-type distribution. The eastern

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David P. Schneider, Clara Deser, and Tingting Fan

consistent with a wave train extending from the tropics to the Antarctic. The zonal wind anomalies related to the second EOF reflect a cyclonic circulation feature centered near 60°S, 120°W. This is the approximate average position of the Amundsen Sea low, a semipermanent low pressure center that has deepened in recent decades ( Raphael et al. 2015 ), consistent with the zonal wind trends in the Pacific sector. The principal component (PC) time series of the two leading modes of zonal wind variability

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Xiaojun Yuan, Michael R. Kaplan, and Mark A. Cane

significantly influence sea ice variability in the Antarctic ( Simmonds and Jacka 1995 ; Yuan and Martinson 2000 , 2001 ; Harangozo 2000 ; Kwok and Comiso 2002 ; Martinson and Iannuzzi 2003 ) and in the Arctic ( Gloersen 1995 ; Loewe and Koslowski 1998 ; Venegas and Mysak 2000 ; Jevrejeva et al. 2003 ). Studies of the tropical–polar teleconnection have advanced rapidly in the recent decade since earlier reviews on the subject ( Trenberth et al. 1998 ; Turner 2004 ), given the accumulation of polar

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Jin-Yi Yu, Houk Paek, Eric S. Saltzman, and Tong Lee

and develops near the South American coast and has its SST anomalies centered in the equatorial eastern Pacific. The CP ENSO tends to onset, develop, and decay locally in the equatorial central Pacific. There are indications that the shift in the longitudinal position of ENSO SST variability in recent decades may change the ENSO impacts on the SH climate. For example, Lee et al. (2010) argued that the 2009/10 CP El Niño event caused a record-breaking warming in the South Pacific and western

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Kate Snow, Andrew McC. Hogg, Bernadette M. Sloyan, and Stephanie M. Downes

SST around Antarctica is postulated to be only an initial response to atmospheric changes and may indeed lead to warming in future periods ( Marshall et al. 2014 ; Ferreira et al. 2015 ). The role of internal variability in the current observations also remains unclear ( Zunz et al. 2013 ). It has been proposed that these recent observational trends may in fact originate from internal variability on decadal to centennial time scales ( Martin et al. 2013 ; Latif et al. 2013 ; Zunz et al. 2013

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Ariaan Purich, Matthew H. England, Wenju Cai, Yoshimitsu Chikamoto, Axel Timmermann, John C. Fyfe, Leela Frankcombe, Gerald A. Meehl, and Julie M. Arblaster

that was not attempted in previous studies. We examine simulations from two different partially coupled experiments that are forced by observed variability in certain predefined regions (termed “pacemaker” experiments) to investigate how observed tropical Pacific decadal variability affected observed Antarctic sea ice trends. The use of these pacemaker experiments enables an estimate of the role of Pacific Ocean SST variability forcing on SIC trends. 2. Data and methods a. Data and model

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Kyle R. Clem and James A. Renwick

average) a Rossby wave train that results in both a lowering of pressure in the Ross Sea and an increase in pressure in the southwestern South Atlantic. They found a significant negative trend in the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO; Mantua et al. 1997 ) residual index (ENSO variability was linearly removed from the PDO) during SON is linearly congruent with more than 40% of the negative pressure trend in the Ross Sea, and a significant positive trend in the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) is

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Ryan L. Fogt and Alex J. Wovrosh

(2015) note that the negative pressure trends in the Ross Sea are more strongly tied to the Pacific decadal oscillation than to tropical variability resembling El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). All of these studies show strong connections between the tropics and the pressure variability in the vicinity of the Amundsen Sea. Moreover, the studies display the connection these variations have to the warming across the Antarctic Peninsula and West Antarctica as well as their connection to sea ice

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