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Samson M. Hagos, Zhe Feng, Casey D. Burleyson, Chun Zhao, Matus N. Martini, and Larry K. Berg

1. Introduction Despite decades of work, simulating the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) in climate models and understanding the instabilities that drive it remain a significant challenge. However, some progress has been reported in recent years. For example, Hung et al. (2013) found that, in general, models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) perform better than those that participated in phase 3 of CMIP (CMIP3) in

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Paul E. Ciesielski, Richard H. Johnson, Wayne H. Schubert, and James H. Ruppert Jr.

1. Introduction The diurnal cycle is a fundamental mode of the circulation and precipitation variability in the tropics. While its characteristics and governing mechanisms over land and coastal regions have been extensively studied and are well understood, the same cannot be said for over the open ocean, where the paucity of observations has limited our ability to fully describe and understand it. Making creative use of surface observations (e.g., COADS, buoy, and scatterometer winds), several

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