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Tomoki Tozuka, Jing-Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, and Toshio Yamagata

variability in the tropical Pacific has been studied extensively in recent decades. However, the decadal phenomenon in the tropical Indian Ocean has received little attention, partly owing to a lack of available observational data. Among a few studies, Meehl et al. (1998) and Allan et al. (2003) discussed a link with the decadal ENSO-like variability in the Pacific. Cole et al. (2000) suggested that the decadal variability in the proxy records of SST from the western Indian Ocean is related to the

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Qian Song, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and Anthony J. Rosati

the model simulation of the Indian Ocean seasonal climatology. We focus on the interannual Indian Ocean SST variability and the statistical characteristics of the IODZM simulated in the model in section 4 . We perform a composite analysis of the IODZM and ENSO in section 5 . In section 6 the decadal variations of the occurrence of IODZM events and the IODZM–ENSO relation are studied. In section 7 we discuss some of our findings, and our conclusions are presented in section 8 . 2. Model

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Gary Meyers, Peter McIntosh, Lidia Pigot, and Mike Pook

such a long period of time is also likely to be useful in paleoclimate research. 2. ENSO and IOD dynamics: A basis for classifying the years ENSO is a mode of climate variability with strong coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere in the Pacific equatorial cold tongue, a spatial relative minimum of SST that extends along the Pacific equator from the coast of South America to the date line. The cold tongue is maintained by upwelling of cooler water from the thermocline caused by the divergence

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Tommy G. Jensen

Studies (CLIVAR) workshop hosted by the International Pacific Research Center in Honolulu, Hawaii, from 29 November to 3 December 2004. The first group of papers addresses the decadal and interannual variability in the Indian Ocean and its relation to El Niño and La Niña. Part of the controversy as to which extent IOD and ENSO are related depends on the definition of these events. Meyers et al. propose a new method to classify El Niño, La Niña, and positive and negative IOD events and use that method

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Gabriel A. Vecchi and Matthew J. Harrison

Schiller 2007 ; Ballabrera-Poy et al. 2007 ; T. Lee 2005, personal communication), prior to the full deployment of the observing system. This paper describes the methods and results of one such OSSE. The Indian Ocean region exhibits large-scale atmospheric and oceanic variability on a variety of time scales, including subseasonal, seasonal, and interannual; there have also been pronounced changes to Indian Ocean oceanic conditions over recent decades (e.g., Boyer et al. 2005 ; Levitus et al. 2005

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Annalisa Cherchi, Silvio Gualdi, Swadhin Behera, Jing Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, Toshio Yamagata, and Antonio Navarra

Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are negatively correlated. Moreover, evidence of a decadal variability affecting this relationship has been found, as its amplitude has decreased during recent decades ( Kumar et al. 1999 ). Lau and Nath (2000) provided a mechanism, also known as the atmospheric bridge, to explain the influence of the tropical Pacific Ocean on the monsoon by means of a suppression of convection over the western part of the Walker circulation in correspondence of a warm ENSO event

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Karumuri Ashok, Hisashi Nakamura, and Toshio Yamagata

explore in the future how these decadal-scale modulations and variations in the tropical variability could modulate the SH storm-track activity and the associated precipitation during austral winter. Acknowledgments We thank the two anonymous referees and the editor (Dr. Tommy Jensen) for their sound criticism and useful suggestions on the earlier versions of this paper. KA thanks Dr. J. Stuart Godfrey for having suggested working on the topic of the “impacts of the IOD phenomenon on the winter storm

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Joaquim Ballabrera-Poy, Eric Hackert, Raghu Murtugudde, and Antonio J. Busalacchi

of the tropical variability of the Pacific Ocean has increased since the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) decade, and the implementation of the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array ( McPhaden et al. 1998 ), our knowledge of the variability in the IO is still limited because of the lack of sufficient observations. Under the auspices of the Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) Project, the IO Panel has proposed a 35-mooring array designed to observe the large-scale dynamical

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Suryachandra A. Rao, Sebastien Masson, Jing-Jia Luo, Swadhin K. Behera, and Toshio Yamagata

. 2004 ). All of these studies showed the capability of CGCMs in simulating the basic characteristics of the IOD and in capturing the processes that are important for the evolution of these events. Ashok et al. (2004) and Tozuka et al. (2007) used CGCM results to study the decadal characteristics of the IOD phenomenon. Behera et al. (2005) , in addition to showing the capability of CGCMs in simulating the basic characteristics of the IOD, also showed the influence of the model IOD on east

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Bohua Huang and J. Shukla

surface temperature variability with interannual and decadal scales. J. Phys. Oceangr. , 24 , 707 – 715 . Kirtman , B. P. , and J. Shukla , 2000 : Influence of the Indian summer monsoon on ENSO. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 126 , 213 – 239 . Klein , S. A. , B. J. Soden , and N-C. Lau , 1999 : Remote sea surface temperature variations during ENSO: Evidence for a tropical atmospheric bridge. J. Climate , 12 , 917 – 932 . Lanzante , J. R. , 1996 : Lag relationships

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