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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

1. Introduction In the North Pacific basin, low-frequency variability in sea surface temperature (SST) has been observed to be characterized by a decadal time scale. Commonly referred to as the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO; Mantua et al. 1997 ), the spatial pattern of this mode has a characteristic “horseshoe” shape, with opposite signs between the extremum in the western and central Pacific and that localized to the eastern rim of the basin. Its time evolution displays characteristic

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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

the deep water formation (DWF) region of the Labrador Sea ( Weaver et al. 2007 ). However, that study was based on a model of intermediate complexity in which significant low-frequency North Atlantic (MOC) variability did not exist. In d’Orgeville and Peltier (2009 , hereafter Part I) , it was demonstrated that the North Pacific decadal variability was significantly influenced by strong greenhouse gas warming. In the North Atlantic also, as in the North Pacific, the spatial structure of the

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Michael S. Pritchard, Andrew B. G. Bush, and Shawn J. Marshall

and the Labrador Sea during three simultaneous NAO and ENSO episodes. Atmos.–Ocean , 34 , 313 – 343 . Newman , M. , G. P. Compo , and M. A. Alexander , 2003 : ENSO-forced variability of the Pacific decadal oscillation. J. Climate , 16 , 3853 – 3857 . Otto-Bliesner , B. L. , S. J. Marshall , J. T. Overpeck , G. H. Miller , and A. Hu , 2006 : Simulating Arctic climate warmth and ice field retreat in the last interglaciation. Science , 311 , 1751 – 1753

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Guido Vettoretti, Marc d’Orgeville, William R. Peltier, and Marek Stastna

been active throughout deglaciation. Reconstructing ENSO activity using sparse data does not necessarily imply that the spatial patterns of tropical Pacific variability that occur on millennial and orbital time scales are consistent with the detailed patterns established on the basis of the high-quality instrumental records of the last two decades ( Rosenthal and Broccoli 2004 ). Thus modeling studies and model-based intercomparisons of paleo-ENSO predictions provide a useful means of investigating

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M. Eby, K. Zickfeld, A. Montenegro, D. Archer, K. J. Meissner, and A. J. Weaver

for multicentury climate projections in support of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report ( Denman et al. 2007 ; Meehl et al. 2007 ). Here, we evaluate the UVic ESCM version 2.8 primarily with respect to its ability to simulate characteristics of the coupled climate–carbon cycle system, including the air–sea flux of CO 2 , the distribution of ocean dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity, the percent of CaCO 3 in sediments, the global carbon budgets of the last decades and the observation

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Garry K. C. Clarke, Andrew B. G. Bush, and John W. M. Bush

. Evidence that there are two scales of variability associated with the 8.2 ka cooling has led some (e.g., Alley and Ágústsdóttir 2005 ; Rohling and Pälike 2005 ) to favor the idea that the centuries-long cooling cycle can be attributed to reduced solar activity and other influences, and only the decades-long central cold event might be attributed to the outburst flood. Obviously the issue of timing is critical because it is highly unlikely that any climate response to the flood was delayed by more

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