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Zhe Feng, Fengfei Song, Koichi Sakaguchi, and L. Ruby Leung

regions east of the Continental Divide (ECONUS; Feng et al. 2019 ; Haberlie and Ashley 2019 ). MCSs consist of an assembly of cumulonimbus clouds on scales of 100 km or greater and produce mesoscale circulations ( Houze 2004 , 2018 ). They are also responsible for over half of the extreme daily rainfall events, trailed by synoptic and tropical systems in the ECONUS ( Stevenson and Schumacher 2014 ). The warming climate in the past three decades has already resulted in an observed increase in the

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Douglas E. Miller and Zhuo Wang

>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1983)040<1363:BWPAIA>2.0.CO;2 Smith , D. M. , A. A. Scaife , R. Eade , and J. R. Knight , 2016 : Seasonal to decadal prediction of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation: Emerging capability and future prospects . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 142 , 611 – 617 , . 10.1002/qj.2479 Strong , C. , and G. Magnusdottir , 2011 : Dependence of NAO variability on coupling with sea ice . Climate Dyn. , 36 , 1681 – 1689

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James F. Booth, Young-Oh Kwon, Stanley Ko, R. Justin Small, and Rym Msadek

. Nakamura , M. Nonaka , N. Komori , A. Kuwano-Yoshida , K. Takaya , and A. Goto , 2012 : Seasonal evolutions of atmospheric response to decadal SST anomalies in the North Pacific subarctic frontal zone: Observations and a coupled model simulation . J. Climate , 25 , 111 – 139 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00046.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00046.1 Thompson , L. , and Y.-O. Kwon , 2010 : An enhancement of low-frequency variability in the Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension in CCSM3 owing to ocean

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Allison A. Wing, Suzana J. Camargo, Adam H. Sobel, Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Hiroyuki Murakami, Kevin A. Reed, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Michael F. Wehner, Colin Zarzycki, and Ming Zhao

– 1162 ,<1152:ITDATO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0434(2002)017<1152:ITDATO>2.0.CO;2 Camargo , S. J. , and A. Wing , 2016 : Tropical cyclones in climate models . Wiley Interdiscip. Rev.: Climate Change , 7 , 211 – 237 , . Chen , J.-H. , and S.-J. Lin , 2011 : The remarkable predictability of inter-annual variability of Atlantic hurricanes during the past decade . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 38 , L11804 , https

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Jiabao Wang, Hyemi Kim, Daehyun Kim, Stephanie A. Henderson, Cristiana Stan, and Eric D. Maloney

phase 3, and a southward shift after phase 7. A detailed review of various MJO impacts on the extratropics is offered by Stan et al. (2017) . Considering the substantial global impacts of the MJO and its teleconnections, it is crucial to accurately simulate and predict characteristics and variability of the MJO and its teleconnections in global climate models (GCMs). Numerous multimodel comparison studies have been conducted on MJO simulations in recent decades (e.g., Lin et al. 2006 ; Hung et al

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Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Suzana J. Camargo, Allison A. Wing, Adam H. Sobel, Hiroyuki Murakami, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Ming Zhao, and Eric Page

frequency and greater intensity of hurricanes? Tellus , 48A , 57 – 73 , . 10.3402/tellusa.v48i1.11632 Bengtsson , L. , K. I. Hodges , and M. Esch , 2007 : Tropical cyclones in a T159 resolution global climate model: Comparison with observations and re-analyses . Tellus , 59A , 396 – 416 , . 10.1111/j.1600-0870.2007.00236.x Bister , M. , and K. A. Emanuel , 2002 : Low frequency variability

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Alexis Berg and Justin Sheffield

differences in their simulation of land–atmosphere fluxes, including ET (e.g., Mueller and Seneviratne 2014 , and references therein). Much research has been directed over the past decade toward evaluating the representation of ET in climate models, based on global land ET products derived from observations, such as remote sensing data, upscaled in situ measurements, and/or land surface models driven by observations (e.g., Mueller et al. 2013 ). Perhaps less attention has been devoted, until recently

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Catherine M. Naud, James F. Booth, Jeyavinoth Jeyaratnam, Leo J. Donner, Charles J. Seman, Ming Zhao, Huan Guo, and Yi Ming

1. Introduction Over the past decade, cloud cover biases in the Southern Hemisphere oceans have been identified ( Trenberth and Fasullo 2010 ) and investigated in a large number of general circulation models (GCMs) and reanalysis products. Bodas-Salcedo et al. (2012 , 2014 ) demonstrated that biases in shortwave absorption at the surface (an issue dominating during the austral summer) stem from deficiencies in the low and midlevel clouds typically found in the cold sector of extratropical

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