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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

transport (e.g., Zhang et al. 2016 ; Feng et al. 2015 ). Kido and Tozuka (2017) investigated interannual salinity variability in the central-eastern equatorial and southeastern tropical Indian Ocean and found that subsurface salinity anomalies are mainly caused by anomalous zonal and vertical advections associated with the pIOD. The basinwide salinity structure in the Indian Ocean also shows decadal variability (e.g., Han et al. 2014 ). Salinity observations in the Indian Ocean at about 32°S imply

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Marvin Xiang Ce Seow, Yushi Morioka, and Tomoki Tozuka

we wish to determine in two particular experiments are different. For example, the SST standard deviations over the Niño-3.4 region in the control and TPMC runs are different at 0.83° and 1.10°C, respectively, and thus the amplitude of the ENSO forcing is different. Also, interannual and decadal variabilities simulated between two experiments with different air–sea coupling conditions are different. This will be a concern when shorter subset data not long enough to average out interannual

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Lei Zhou, Ruomei Ruan, and Raghu Murtugudde

1. Introduction Madden–Julian oscillations (MJOs; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ; Zhang 2005 ) are a major component of intraseasonal variabilities in the tropics, which have a typical period of 30–60 days. Usually, MJOs originate over the western Indian Ocean. In boreal winter, most MJOs propagate eastward from the Indian Ocean into the Pacific Ocean via the Maritime Continent ( Wang and Rui 1990 ). However, MJO trajectories diverge near the Maritime Continent. A portion of MJOs go through

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Daehyun Kang, Daehyun Kim, Min-Seop Ahn, and Soon-Il An

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) is a planetary-scale disturbance in the tropical atmosphere that propagates eastward with intraseasonal time scales of 30–90 days. As the dominant mode of tropical intraseasonal variability, the MJO affects global weather and climate (e.g., Zhang et al. 2013 ). The anomalously enhanced or suppressed convection associated with the MJO is tightly coupled to circulation anomalies in the tropics, through which

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

extended. Accordingly, the Tasman Sea heat wave in 2015/16 appears to be a fairly singular event whereby the ocean and atmospheric components to the ocean anomalies were acting in consort, whereas more commonly they are not, and the atmospheric effects and other influences are apt to dominate. Similarly, Behrens et al. (2019) found no relationship between the Tasman Sea heat waves and ENSO or the Pacific decadal oscillation while Sloyan and O’Kane (2015) found pronounced decadal variability in the

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Jieshun Zhu, Arun Kumar, and Wanqiu Wang

are grateful for the constructive comments from the editor and three anonymous reviewers. REFERENCES Bechtold , P. , M. Köhler , T. Jung , F. Doblas-Reyes , M. Leutbecher , M. J. Rodwell , F. Vitart , and G. Balsamo , 2008 : Advances in simulating atmospheric variability with the ECMWF model: From synoptic to decadal time-scales . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 134 , 1337 – 1351 , . 10.1002/qj.289 DeMott , C. A. , N. P. Klingaman , and

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Chen Li, Jing-Jia Luo, Shuanglin Li, Harry Hendon, Oscar Alves, and Craig MacLachlan

Indian Ocean, which is known as the Somali CEF (e.g., Findlater 1969 ). The interannual variation of the Somali CEF is found to be related to broad climate variabilities, including the Mascarene high (e.g., Xue et al. 2003 ), the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) precipitation (e.g., Halpern and Woiceshyn 2001 ), and the Pacific–Japan teleconnection pattern (e.g., Wang and Xue 2003 ). Besides, another substantial CEF has been documented over the Maritime Continent (MC) region (e.g., Wang and Li 1982

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Jieshun Zhu, Wanqiu Wang, and Arun Kumar

. H. Schubert , 1974 : Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment, Part I . J. Atmos. Sci. , 31 , 674 – 704 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1974)031<0674:IOACCE>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1974)031<0674:IOACCE>2.0.CO;2 Bechtold , P. , M. Köhler , T. Jung , F. Doblas-Reyes , M. Leutbecher , M. J. Rodwell , F. Vitart , and G. Balsamo , 2008 : Advances in simulating atmospheric variability with the ECMWF model: From synoptic to decadal time

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Chen Li, Jing-Jia Luo, and Shuanglin Li

1. Introduction The Asian–Australian monsoon is the most powerful monsoon system as a result of the strongest thermal contrast between the Eurasian continent and the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The seasonal evolution and the year-to-year variability of the Asian–Australian monsoon produce remarkable influences on the agriculture, economy, and society of the Eastern Hemisphere tropics and subtropics regions (e.g., Wang 2006 ). The tropospheric low-level cross-equatorial flows (CEFs) over the western

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Chu-Chun Chen, Min-Hui Lo, Eun-Soon Im, Jin-Yi Yu, Yu-Chiao Liang, Wei-Ting Chen, Iping Tang, Chia-Wei Lan, Ren-Jie Wu, and Rong-You Chien

studies have also suggested that mesoscale deforestation tends to increase local precipitation in western Malaysia; the responsible mechanisms are not clear ( Hanif et al. 2016 ). The Maritime Continent region has experienced dramatic forest losses in recent decades ( Gaveau et al. 2014 ; Austin et al. 2019 ), but these changes have received less attention than the deforestation in the Amazon and Congo basins. Based on Landsat satellite data, the forest clearing rate in Indonesia was higher than that

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