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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, Masato Mori, and Yu Kosaka

oceanic Rossby waves, yields meridionally confined persistent SST anomalies ( Seager et al. 2001 ; Schneider et al. 2002 ; Nonaka et al. 2006 ; Taguchi et al. 2007 ; Newman et al. 2016 ). Indeed, decadal SST variability in winter exhibits a primary maximum off the east coast of Japan along the SAFZ and a secondary maximum over the subtropical frontal zone ( Nakamura and Kazmin 2003 ). The SST variability in SAFZ exhibits no significant simultaneous correlation with the tropical SST variability

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Bunmei Taguchi, Niklas Schneider, Masami Nonaka, and Hideharu Sasaki

Schneider (2014 , hereinafter TS14) analyzed mechanisms for generation and propagation of decadal-scale OHC anomalies in a long-term climate model simulation. In their model, large OHC variability in the North Pacific is confined along the subarctic frontal zone (SAFZ) where mean northward decrease of temperature and salinity density compensates and forms large gradients of mean spiciness (e.g., Veronis 1972 ; Schneider 2000 ). The simulated frontal zone exhibits internally generated decadal

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Bunmei Taguchi and Niklas Schneider

1. Introduction Pacific decadal variability (PDV) is a crucial low-frequency variability that regulates, together with a global warming trend due to anthropogenic forcing, near-term (10–30 yr) climate and weather in Pacific rim countries, as well as ecosystems in the Pacific Ocean (e.g., Mantua et al. 1997 ; Nakamura et al. 1997 ; Minobe 1997 ; Schneider and Cornuelle 2005 ; Di Lorenzo et al. 2008 ; Solomon et al. 2011 ; Liu 2012 ). Because of the societal impact of PDV (and the

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Adèle Révelard, Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Bo Qiu

well separated either in the satellite altimetry era ( Qiu and Chen 2010 ) or in the period considered in the present paper. On the other hand, the transport and meridional position of the OE respond rapidly to the wind stress changes associated with the Aleutian low via barotropic Rossby wave propagation and Ekman currents, while being also remotely forced near 160°–170°E about three years before (e.g., Qiu 2002 ; Nonaka et al. 2008 ). Hence, the decadal variability of the KE and the OE is not

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Yoshi N. Sasaki and Chisato Umeda

variability of the Kuroshio transport in response to the wind stress field over the North Pacific: Its relation to the path variation south of Japan . J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 14 057 – 14 071 , . 10.1029/96JC01000 Andres , M. , J. H. Park , M. Wimbush , X. H. Zhu , H. Nakamura , K. Kim , and K. I. Chang , 2009 : Manifestation of the Pacific decadal oscillation in the Kuroshio . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 36 , L16602 ,

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Yi-Hui Wang and W. Timothy Liu

atmospheric response to the temporal changes in the location and strength of western boundary currents, which are particularly significant on interannual and decadal time scales (e.g., Kwon et al. 2010 ). Frankignoul et al. (2011) investigated the correspondence of large-scale circulation with the shifts of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) and Oyashio Extension (OE). O’Reilly and Czaja (2015) focused on the North Pacific circulation response to KE variability from the perspective of eddy–mean flow

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Takafumi Miyasaka, Kazuaki Nishii, and Bo Qiu

the recurrent development of synoptic-scale disturbances along the Pacific storm track ( Nakamura et al. 2004 , 2008 ; Taguchi et al. 2009 ; Sampe et al. 2010 ; Hotta and Nakamura 2011 ). The SAFZ is recognized as one of the major centers of action of decadal SST variability within the Pacific basin ( Nakamura et al. 1997 ). The meridional displacement of the frontal axis yields persistent SST anomalies ( Seager et al. 2001 ; Nakamura and Kazmin 2003 ; Nonaka et al. 2006 ), in modifying SHF

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, Lixin Wu, and Xiuquan Wan

1. Introduction Modes of climate variability in the North Pacific and North Atlantic have been well documented and widely discussed in the literature (e.g., Hurrell and VanLoon 1997 ; Mantua et al. 1997 ; Nakamura et al. 1997 ; Hurrell et al. 2003 ). The most dominant patterns of North Pacific and Atlantic climate variability are the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), while the importance of other patterns, such as the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, and Robert A. Tomas

dominates heat flux variability in many storm track locations (see section 5b ). Meanwhile for decadal and longer-term variability, the observational record is short, although some interesting findings have been made for subpolar gyre variability on these time scales by, for example, Gulev et al. (2013) , Clement et al. (2015) , Zhang et al. (2016) , Delworth et al. (2017) , Cane et al. (2017) , and O’Reilly and Zanna (2018) . For these reasons, we focus on monthly to interannual variability, at

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Young-Oh Kwon and Terrence M. Joyce

still very limited. Nevertheless, the GS, KE, and Oyashio Extension (OE) exhibit prominent interannual-to-decadal variability, especially for the fluctuation in the meridional position of these ocean fronts ( Joyce et al. 2000 ; Qiu and Chen 2005 ; Joyce et al. 2009 ; Frankignoul et al. 2011 ). KE changes have been explained as the response to the basin-scale wind stress curl changes associated with the Aleutian low fluctuations, primarily the meridional shifts, with 3–5-yr delay via the

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