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Mojib Latif, Torge Martin, and Wonsun Park

averaged over the period 1991–2010 presented as anomalies relative to the period 1971–90. (b) The corresponding zonal-mean temperature anomalies. While the Northern Hemisphere experienced a strong warming during the recent decades, the Southern Hemisphere warmed only little. The global-average SST difference between the two time periods amounts to 0.2°C. Climate variability can be either generated internally by interactions within or between the individual climate system components (e.g., atmosphere

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Jiale Lou, Neil J. Holbrook, and Terence J. O’Kane

1. Introduction In line with the great volume of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) oceans, the South Pacific Ocean exhibits prominent decadal climate variability (e.g., Reason 2000 ). That said, our understanding of Pacific and in particular South Pacific decadal variability and predictability has been limited, despite this being an emerging area of substantial interest and active research ( Meehl et al. 2014 ; Holbrook et al. 2014 ; Power et al. 2017 ). The lack of consistent long

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Xiaogu Zheng and Carsten S. Frederiksen

1. Introduction Decadal means are a popular statistic for decadal climate variability (e.g., Watanabe et al. 2014 ; Allen et al. 2013 ; Knight 2009 ; Watterson and Whetton 2011 ). Climate scenarios, such as in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports, also use decadal mean variables as the baseline of future climate. Therefore, it is crucial to better understand the uncertainty, predictability, and drivers of the decadal mean variables. In decadal climate variability

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Carsten S. Frederiksen, Xiaogu Zheng, and Simon Grainger

1. Introduction Decadal and multidecadal climate variability has been a topic of interest for a number of decades. It has been studied in observations (e.g., Zhang et al. 1997 ; Delworth and Mann 2000 ; Sutton and Hodson 2005 ; Parker et al. 2007 ; Schubert et al. 2009 ; Liu 2012 and references therein; Zheng and Frederiksen 2021 ) and in climate models (e.g., Delworth et al. 1993 ; Mann et al. 1995 ; Knight et al. 2005 ; Delworth et al. 2007 ; Knight 2009 ; Frederiksen et al

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Toby R. Ault and Scott St. George

) variability in precipitation across North America using a set of gridded instrumental precipitation records. Most prior studies of D2M variability in instrumental records of drought or precipitation have focused on identifying spatially coherent patterns and used data processed to emphasize variations at those time scales (e.g., Enfield et al. 2001 ; McCabe et al. 2004 ; McCabe and Palecki 2006 ). We adopt a complimentary approach that compares the amount of variance in decadal and multidecadal bands

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Tim Woollings, Elizabeth Barnes, Brian Hoskins, Young-Oh Kwon, Robert W. Lee, Camille Li, Erica Madonna, Marie McGraw, Tess Parker, Regina Rodrigues, Clemens Spensberger, and Keith Williams

linked to jet variability. For example, the recent unusual jet winters also exhibited strong but distinct blocking anomalies, with the 2009/10 jet being shifted south of blocking over Greenland and the 2011/12 jet shifted north of blocking over southwest Europe ( Santos et al. 2013 ). Hence, we show that decadal increases in jet position variability are linked to increased blocking over both Greenland and parts of Europe. These basinwide variations in blocking have been implicated in contributing to

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Jesse Reusen, Eveline van der Linden, and Richard Bintanja

1. Introduction In the last four decades, the global climate is warming at a rate of ~0.17°C decade −1 ( Hansen et al. 2010 ). This rate of warming can be obscured by naturally occurring climate fluctuations, which are superimposed on the trend. Natural fluctuations are present on all time scales, ranging from daily variations to annual, interannual, and decadal variations. In this paper, we address interannual and decadal climate variability of the Arctic region, where trends and variability

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Yingying Zhao, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Daoxun Sun, and Samantha Stevenson

1. Introduction Pacific decadal variability (PDV), here defined as variability on time scales longer that 6–8 years, has long been recognized for its strong impacts on global climate as well as regional weather and marine ecosystems, particularly over North America and Asia ( Roemmich and McGowan 1995 ; Mantua et al. 1997 ; Martinez et al. 2009 ; Alexander et al. 2010 ; Deser et al. 2010 ; Liu 2012 ; Di Lorenzo et al. 2013 ; Chen and Wallace 2015 ; Liu and Di Lorenzo 2018 ). Recent

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Scott J. Weaver

1. Introduction During the latter half of the twentieth century a warm season negative surface temperature anomaly developed over the central U.S. in the midst of continental warming. This observed cooling trend dubbed the “warming hole” ( Kunkel et al. 2006 ) reached a peak in the 1990s, however, it has weakened during the most recent decade, suggesting that decadal climate variability may be influential in the temporal fluctuations of Great Plains surface temperature anomalies. The extent to

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Wilbert Weijer, Ernesto Muñoz, Niklas Schneider, and François Primeau

1. Introduction The Pacific climate system exhibits variability on decadal time scales, known as Pacific decadal variability (PDV). This variability is conveniently associated with a specific signature in sea surface temperature (SST) known as the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), which is defined as the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of North Pacific SST variability ( Mantua et al. 1997 ). Although many hypotheses have been put forward to explain PDV, most of these assign the

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