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Chengcheng Xu
,
Chen Wang
, and
Pan Liu

quartiles of this distance are 2.7 and 6.9 km. Weather conditions were defined based on visibility or precipitation intensity according to the definitions used in meteorology. The low-visibility weather was classified as haze, mist, and fog based on the magnitude of visibility, and the intensity of rainfall was classified as light, moderate, and heavy based on the precipitation intensity ( Vautard et al. 2009 ; Glickman 2000 ). Considering the sample size in each category, the moderate and heavy rain

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Aleksandra Romanowska
and
Marcin Budzyński

1. Introduction Adverse weather such as rain, snow, and fog may significantly reduce visibility or change adhesion properties and, as a consequence, affect drivers’ sense of safety, driving comfort, and their reaction to a changing driving environment ( Chang et al. 2019 ; Chen et al. 2019 ; Das et al. 2019 ). A number of studies have been undertaken in order to investigate the impact of weather on traffic conditions and road safety, distinguishing the impact of fog, rainfall, wind

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Mario Cools
,
Elke Moons
, and
Geert Wets

1. Introduction a. Background A clear insight into how weather conditions influence traffic is essential for policymakers. This is underlined by policy issues that are often related to adverse weather events such as increased fuel consumption, economic losses due to traffic delays, and higher traffic counts. Day-to-day weather conditions such as fog and precipitation can reduce travel, for instance when drivers postpone or cancel discretionary activities, but can also have an increased effect

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Jose A. Algarin Ballesteros
and
Nathan M. Hitchens

the fact that Weber et al. conducted their study for all four seasons instead of just winter. Only three weather categories were used: thunderstorms, heavy fog, and reduced visibility. Their results presented reduced visibility (52%) as the primary year-round cause for flight delays, while thunderstorms and heavy fog were observed with similar frequencies, 25% and 23%, respectively. Given that New York City, with an estimated population of 8.5 million in 2015 ( U.S. Census 2017 ), is the country

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Sonu Mathew
and
Srinivas S. Pulugurtha

the effect of poor visibility on car-following performance. They observed that the distance headway decreased in the densest fog conditions while the root-mean-square velocity error increased with an increase in fog density ( Kang et al. 2008 ). Nowadays, travel time reliability is considered as a critical performance measure to assess the condition of the freeway and arterial road segments. It is a measure of service quality ( Chen et al. 2003 ). It can be used to quantify the performance of a

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Dana M. Tobin
,
Heather D. Reeves
,
Maci N. Gibson
, and
Andrew A. Rosenow

visibility—such as may result from fog or blowing/falling snow—also affects winter road safety and leads to increased crash risk and injury severity ( Theofilatos and Yannis 2014 and references therein; Mills et al. 2019 ). Andrey and Yagar (1993) suggest that even if a driver is able to overcome slick roadway conditions, crash risk is still heightened when visibility is reduced. Most studies relating traffic crashes to weather only consider weather conditions at the time of the crash using

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Dana M. Tobin
,
Matthew R. Kumjian
, and
Alan W. Black

any precipitation with above-freezing temperatures were reported at nearby weather stations for all warm-season (May–September) sleet and snow entries. To date, it is the only study to filter FARS precipitation types for possible inaccuracies. C18 were the first to correlate FARS atmospheric conditions to weather conditions reported at nearby weather stations, specifically rain, snow, and fog. Therein, FARS fatal crash counts from 2007 to 2014 were matched with Quality Controlled Local

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J. D. Tamerius
,
X. Zhou
,
R. Mantilla
, and
T. Greenfield-Huitt

1. Introduction Approximately 23% of crashes in the United States occur in adverse weather conditions ( U.S. DOT 2011 ). Adverse weather conditions, such as rain, snow, ice, fog, wind, and temperature, are known to increase the frequency of motor vehicle crashes ( Qin et al. 2007 ; Andrey et al. 2003 ; Abdel-Aty et al. 2011 ; Basagaña et al. 2015 ). Precipitation modulates the risk of crashes through reduced visibility and road friction ( Andrey and Yagar 1993 ). A meta-analysis of previous

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Christopher A. Fiebrich
,
Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska
,
Phillip B. Chilson
, and
Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little

operated in a profiling mode at two Oklahoma Mesonet sites, while fixed-wing WxUAS flew transects between the sites. Such data enabled the monitoring of capping inversions, low-level moisture flow, directional wind shear, and atmospheric buoyancy. Other applications that call for improved low-altitude data collection are the prediction of winter precipitation type ( Tripp et al. 2021 ) and fog forecasts. Even though the data resolution of WxUAS profile measurements will likely be lower compared to

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António Lobo
,
Sara Ferreira
,
Isabel Iglesias
, and
António Couto

, cloudy, fog, dust, wind, rain, storm, or snow. Lee and Abdel-Aty (2005) used an ordered probit model to estimate the likelihood of five pedestrian injury severity levels (no injury, possible injury, nonincapacitating evident injury, incapacitating evident injury, and fatal injury). The authors considered, among other effects, the impact of clear versus adverse weather in Florida, having found that adverse weather increases injury severity due to the higher crash impacts caused by the decrease in

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