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Timothy J. Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

begins over the highest peaks of the SMO in the late morning and early afternoon ( Lang et al. 2007a ; Nesbitt et al. 2008 ; Rowe et al. 2008 ). This convection moves westward, intensifying, organizing, and growing upscale as the afternoon progresses. Meanwhile, convection along the sea-breeze front over the coastal plain can start just as early. However, convection normally ends after sunset, with stratiform precipitation and fog common until morning. The NAME region is regularly affected by

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R. Uijlenhoet, J.-M. Cohard, and M. Gosset

that would be received in the absence of rainfall, L (km) is the pathlength, k (dB km −1 ) is the specific extinction coefficient, and s (km) is the distance from the transmitter. Equation (1) is based on the assumptions that extinction is solely due to rainfall—that is, that the contributions of fog or clouds, water vapor, and aerosols are negligible, and that multiple scattering does not play a role (e.g., Tam 1980 ; van de Hulst 1981 ; Tam and Zardecki 1982 ; Zardecki and Tam 1982

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