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Peter N. Blossey, Christopher S. Bretherton, and Johannes Mohrmann

with precipitation ( Sandu and Stevens 2011 ; Eastman and Wood 2016 ; Yamaguchi et al. 2017 ). While many simulation studies are based on idealized or composite scenarios with gradual changes in SST and steady large-scale forcings, a case study based on the ASTEX field campaign ( Bretherton and Pincus 1995 ; Bretherton et al. 1999 ; Van der Dussen et al. 2013 ) provided an example of a particular strongly forced transition. McGibbon and Bretherton (2017) also simulated well-observed cloud

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Johannes Mohrmann, Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Jeremy McGibbon, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Bruce Albrecht, Mampi Sarkar, Paquita Zuidema, and Rabindra Palikonda

remains cloudier. The two cases differ in initial MBL depth, decoupling, microphysics, and large-scale forcings. Note that the agreement between outbound flight number and case number (L06 coming from RF06, L10 from RF10) is coincidental. b. Satellite and reanalysis data In addition to the GV measurements, satellite and reanalysis data are used. Where possible, these are compared to aircraft observations for additional validation. The satellite data consists of cloud property fields generated from

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Johna E. Rudzin, Lynn K. Shay, and Benjamin Jaimes de la Cruz

forcing, since entrainment cooling is less with deep-ocean mixed layers, and sustain air–sea fluxes into the storm ( Shay et al. 2000 ; Lin et al. 2005 , 2009 , 2013 ; Shay and Uhlhorn 2008 ; Jaimes and Shay 2009 , 2010 ; Jaimes et al . 2015 ). In addition to ocean thermal structure, a few studies have indicated that the upper-ocean salinity stratification within the Amazon–Orinoco River plume plays a role in modulating SST during TC passage by reducing the efficiency of upper-ocean mixing

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Jenny V. Turton, Thomas Mölg, and Dirk Van As

-scale evolution during that period. Because of the relatively short run time and the size of the domains, nudging was not used. This further allows us to assess the output from WRF, independent of the forcing data. Subsequent use of analysis nudging for the same setup in other tests has revealed a negligible difference between the runs with and without nudging. During this particular event, the air temperature rose from a daily average of −24.5°C at KPC_U and −19.4°C at KPC_L on 28 November, to a daily

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Bradley W. Klotz and David S. Nolan

are conveyed by the RMW and an asymmetry factor. The size term here is not necessarily representative of the full vortex size, but a larger RMW tends to correspond to a larger vortex. The extent of the vortex is often defined by the radius of minimal tropical storm force winds (i.e., >17 m s −1 ; Chavas and Emanuel 2010 ), but this definition of size is less relevant to the present study. To determine the RMW from the two-dimensional surface winds, azimuthally averaged wind speeds are produced

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Vasubandhu Misra and Amit Bhardwaj

forcing . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 43 , 2008 – 2022 , . 10.1175/JPO-D-13-033.1 Bishwajit , G. , S. Sarkar , M. A. Kpoghomou , H. Gao , L. Jun , D. Yin , and S. Ghosh , 2013 : Self-sufficiency in rice and food security: A South Asian perspective . Agric. Food Secur. , 2 , 10, . 10.1186/2048-7010-2-10 Carmichael , G. R. , and Coauthors , 2009 : Asian aerosols: Current and year 2030 distributions and

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Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Andrew Gettelman, Charles G. Bardeen, Bruce A. Albrecht, and Paquita Zuidema

bins, was positively correlated with estimated inversion strength (EIS) with a regression slope close to past climatology. After controlling for EIS, the low cloud cover was not well correlated with cloud droplet concentration, which suggests that the Sc–Cu transition is not strongly controlled by aerosol processes. This contrasts with some recent idealized large-eddy simulation studies (e.g., Yamaguchi et al. 2017 ), but is consistent with another such study using data-constrained forcings and

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