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Thomas R. Parish
,
Matthew D. Burkhart
, and
Alfred R. Rodi

1. Introduction The most fundamental forcing term in the equation of motion that governs atmospheric dynamics is the pressure gradient force. In particular, it is the horizontal component of the pressure gradient force that is critical to the understanding of atmospheric motion. Typically, the horizontal component of the pressure gradient force (PGF) is four orders of magnitude smaller than the vertical component, yet is responsible for the forcing of nearly all atmospheric motions. Knowledge

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T. M. Georges
,
J. A. Harlan
,
L. R. Meyer
, and
R. G. Peer

VOL. 10, NO. 4 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY AUGUST 1993Tracking Hurricane Claudette with the U.S. Air Force Over-the-Horizon Radar T. M. GEORGES NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado J. A. HARLAN CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado L. R. MEYER General Electric Company, Bangor, Maine

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Matthew J. Hoffman
,
Takemasa Miyoshi
,
Thomas W. N. Haine
,
Kayo Ide
,
Christopher W. Brown
, and
Raghu Murtugudde

hydrodynamics lead to further errors in the predictions of water quality and biological parameters. One way to improve model performance is through continued model development and increases in grid resolution and the accuracy of forcing fields and parameterization schemes. Another way, which we apply here, is to integrate data from existing observing networks into the model through data assimilation, thereby making the model results more realistic. Oceanographic data assimilation has been performed for many

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Jarred L. Burley
,
Steven T. Fiorino
,
Brannon J. Elmore
, and
Jaclyn E. Schmidt

these effects requires detailed knowledge of atmospheric variability, which in turn requires an expanded environmental database beyond the typical deterministic or “standard” atmospheres utilized by many modern radiative transfer models. To this end, the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) has produced an atmospheric characterization and radiative transfer code, the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR; Fiorino et al. 2014 ). LEEDR is a verified and validated atmospheric

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Avishai Ben-David
,
Alan P. Force
,
Francis M. D'Amico
, and
Silvio L. Emery

520 $OURNAL O,F ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUME9The Effect of a CO2 Laser Pulse Shape on the Accuracy of DIAL Measurements AVISHAI BEN-DAVIDScience and Technology Corporation, Edgewood, Maryland ALAN P. FORCE, FRANCIS M. D'AMICO, AND SILVIO L. EMERYU.S. Army Chemical Research, Development, and Engineering Center. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (Manuscript received 5 March 1991

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Ann M. Fridlind
and
Andrew S. Ackerman

1. Introduction The interactions of aerosols with clouds represent a leading source of uncertainty in quantifying anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate globally since preindustrial times ( Solomon et al. 2007 ). Clouds are also reported to constitute the largest source of uncertainty in climate sensitivity to radiative forcing in current coupled ocean–atmosphere climate models ( Soden and Held 2006 ). In the tropics, differences in the predicted sensitivity of marine boundary layer clouds

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Moguo Sun
,
David R. Doelling
,
Norman G. Loeb
,
Ryan C. Scott
,
Joshua Wilkins
,
Le Trang Nguyen
, and
Pamela Mlynczak

1. Introduction One of the greatest challenges in climate model projections of warming in response to anthropogenic forcing is the representation of clouds and their interactions with Earth’s radiation budget in climate models ( Boucher et al. 2013 ). Cloud processes occur over a range of time and space scales, which makes them difficult to model. Climate models agree that feedbacks collectively amplify the surface temperature response to external forcing, but the strengths of the

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James I. Metcalf
,
Alexander W. Bishop
,
Richard C. Chanley
,
Timothy C. Hiett
, and
Pio J. Petrocchi

VOL. 10, NO. 3 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY JUNEI993An 1 1-cm Coherent Polarimetric Radar for Meteorological Research JAMES I. METCALF, ALEXANDER W. BISHOP,* RICHARD C. CHANLEY,* TIMOTHY C. HIETT, AND PIO J. PETROCCHIAtmospheric Sciences Division, Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts (Manuscript received 17 January 1992, in final form I September

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Muhammad Zain Bin Riaz
,
Shu-Qing Yang
,
Muttucumaru Sivakumar
,
Keith Enever
,
Usman Khalil
, and
Nadeeka Sajeewani Miguntanna

critical shear stress and the critical velocity. Incipient motion and wave energy dissipation are traditionally predicted by bed shear stresses. For noncohesive sediments, the critical Shields number or the well-known Shields curve is widely used in practice and was initially proposed by Shields (1936) , who examined the forces exerted on a single grain at incipient motion under steady flows. The results suggested that sediment motion results from the destabilizing force of the shear stress exceeding

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I. Hoteit
,
B. Cornuelle
,
V. Thierry
, and
D. Stammer

-Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TOGA-TAO) buoy network ( McPhaden et al. 1998 ), the availability of subsurface data is now also becoming more complete. However, a detailed description of the tropical Pacific dynamics still requires the support of model simulations driven by surface fluxes of heat, momentum, and freshwater. Complete spatial and temporal coverage of surface fluxes of momentum, heat, and freshwater is available from atmospheric analysis centers. However, their forcing fields are prone to random

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