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Rong-Hua Zhang and Antonio J. Busalacchi

-related SST perturbations differ significantly from those associated with El Niño (e.g., Xie 2004 ). As the TIW-related waves meander over the frontal region, the accompanied SST perturbations induce surface wind changes. Over cool oceans like the TIW active regions of the eastern tropical Pacific, the atmospheric wind response is local and shallow, confined to the vicinity of large SST TIW -forcing regions in the horizontal and to the atmospheric PBL in the vertical. Although the precise mechanisms by

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Hamish A. Ramsay, Lance M. Leslie, and Jeffrey D. Kepert

diagnoses the boundary layer flow as the response to certain forcing boundary conditions. The upper boundary forcing is a translating pressure field representative of a tropical cyclone. The parametric pressure field of Willoughby et al. (2006) was used for this purpose, with the adjustable parameters chosen by a minimized least squares fit to the MM5 mean sea level pressure field ( Fig. 3 ). The development of this parametric model included very extensive verification against aircraft data, and it

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Howard B. Bluestein

west), most of the dryline in the Texas and Oklahoma Panhandles was not marked by a band of well-defined convergence/confluence associated with a wind shift as there often is both with and in the absence of strong synoptic-scale forcing (e.g., Hane et al. 1997 ; Crawford and Bluestein 1997 ; Hane et al. 2001 ). The dewpoint increased with time at most mesonet sites in the region (not shown), especially after 2230 UTC, as moister air was advected westward. There was, however, a localized area of

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M. Issa Lélé and Peter J. Lamb

nearly as wet as many years during the 1950s ( Fig. 1 ). Also, the two drought years differed substantially concerning both their basin-scale sea surface temperature (SST) causation and resulting regional West African rainfall anomaly patterns. During 1983, for which the key SST forcing emanated from the pronounced tropical Pacific El Niño event ( Lamb and Peppler 1992 ), the drought extended from the Sudan–Sahel equatorward to the Gulf of Guinea coast ( Ward 1998 ; Nicholson and Grist 2001

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