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Rong-Hua Zhang and Antonio J. Busalacchi

-related SST perturbations differ significantly from those associated with El Niño (e.g., Xie 2004 ). As the TIW-related waves meander over the frontal region, the accompanied SST perturbations induce surface wind changes. Over cool oceans like the TIW active regions of the eastern tropical Pacific, the atmospheric wind response is local and shallow, confined to the vicinity of large SST TIW -forcing regions in the horizontal and to the atmospheric PBL in the vertical. Although the precise mechanisms by

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Hamish A. Ramsay, Lance M. Leslie, and Jeffrey D. Kepert

diagnoses the boundary layer flow as the response to certain forcing boundary conditions. The upper boundary forcing is a translating pressure field representative of a tropical cyclone. The parametric pressure field of Willoughby et al. (2006) was used for this purpose, with the adjustable parameters chosen by a minimized least squares fit to the MM5 mean sea level pressure field ( Fig. 3 ). The development of this parametric model included very extensive verification against aircraft data, and it

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