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Mark R. Jury
and
David M. Sanchez

motion, geopotential height, satellite outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and winds. As the analysis is focused on baroclinic flood events in the satellite era, it is believed that the NCEP–NCAR data will provide an adequate description of the large-scale meteorological forcing ( Carter and Elsner 1997 ). In addition to the composite analysis, we investigate the predictability of flood events by considering climate and weather model data at lead times from days to weeks, and we study three

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Pin-Fang Lin
,
Pao-Liang Chang
,
Ben Jong-Dao Jou
,
James W. Wilson
, and
Rita D. Roberts

1. Introduction The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of afternoon thunderstorms on the island of Taiwan during the warm season (May–October 2005–2008) for days when synoptic forcing was weak. It is particularly challenging to forecast thunderstorms in Taiwan, which is a mountainous island characterized by the Central Mountain Range (CMR) running across most of it in a north-northeast–south-southwest orientation at an average height of about 2 km ( Fig. 1 ). Mountains

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Thomas M. Hamill
,
Robert P. D'Entremont
, and
James T. Buntin

288 WEATHER AND FORECASTING VOLUME7A Description of the Air Force Real-Time Nephana~ysfis Model THOMAS M. HAMILL*Meteorological Models Section. Air Force Global Weather Central, Offutt AFB, Nebraska ROBERT P. D'ENTREMONT AND JAMES T. BUNTINGSatellite Meteorology Branch, Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, Hanscorn AFB. Massachusetts(Manuscript received 24

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David A. Short
,
James E. Sardonia
,
Winifred C. Lambert
, and
Mark M. Wheeler

, westerly shear being correlated with severe weather ( Hagemeyer and Schmocker 1991 ). Easterly shear can also result in high-level anvil clouds over the space launch and landing facilities of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on Florida's east coast, originating from convective systems over the Atlantic Ocean. Caniaux et al. (1994) used the term “forward anvil clouds” to describe the westward-propagating anvil of a tropical squall line in easterly

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Dawn L. Sanderson
,
Edward D. White
,
Andrew J. Geyer
,
William P. Roeder
, and
Alex J. Gutman

1. Introduction Lightning is one of the most powerful and frequent natural phenomena that poses a risk to everyday life. Particularly concerning to the safety of human life, equipment, and machines is the appearance of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning ( Rakov 2016 ). Due to the severe danger lightning presents for both personnel and equipment, the Air Force (AF) and its civilian counterparts conducted extensive research to ascertain the ideal balance between safety and productivity. Located on

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William R. Ryerson
and
Joshua P. Hacker

1. Introduction Reductions to visibility between the ranges 1 and 7 mi (1 mi = 1.6 km) due to fog are a significant safety concern for many aviation operations. Accurate visibility predictions in this range, hereafter termed light fog, are critical because they dictate restrictions on certain aircraft types and equipment, pilot level of experience, etc. Remote and sparsely observed regions, often of primary interest to the U.S. Air Force, provide a particularly challenging visibility prediction

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Gary P. Ellrod
and
David I. Knapp

150 WEATHER AND FORECASTING VOLUME7FORECASTING TECHNIQUESAn Objective Clear-Air Turbulence Forecasting Technique: Verification and Operational Use GARY P. ELLRODSatellite Applications Laboratory (NOAA/NESDIS), Washington, D.C. DAVID I. KNAPPAir Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC), Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska6 June 1991 and 12 September 1991 An objective technique for forecasting clear

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Kenneth F. Heideman
and
J. Michael Fritsch

JUNE1988 KENNETH F. HEIDEMAN AND J. MICHAEL FRITSCH 115Forcing Mechanisms and Other Characteristics of Significant Summertime Precipitation KENNETH F. HEIDEMANNOAA /ERL /PROFS, Boulder, Colorado J. MICHAEL FRITSCHDepartment of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania(Manuscript received 2 November 1987, in final form 29 February 1988

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John A. Knaff
and
Charles R. Sampson

−1 ) or gale force, damaging, and hurricane force winds in quadrants surrounding the TC. These are collectively referred to as wind radii. NHC forecasts hurricane force wind radii through 36 hours, and damaging and gale force wind radii through 72 hours, while intensity and track are forecast through 120 hours. The forecasting of TC structure/wind radii at NHC was last described in the refereed literature by Rappaport et al. (2009) . An update to that information is provided here. The 34-kt wind

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Jonathan L. Case
,
John Manobianco
,
Allan V. Dianic
,
Mark M. Wheeler
,
Dewey E. Harms
, and
Carlton R. Parks

1. Introduction The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS; Pielke et al. 1992 ) numerical weather prediction (NWP) model is run in real time at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support operations of the U.S. space program. RAMS represents the NWP portion of the Eastern Range Dispersion Assessment System (ERDAS; Lyons et al. 1993 ), which was developed by the Mission Research Corporation (MRC)/ASTER Division for the U.S. Air Force (USAF). Delivered to the Eastern Range at

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