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  • Air–Sea Interactions from the Diurnal to the Intraseasonal during the PISTON, MISOBOB, and CAMP2Ex Observational Campaigns in the Tropics x
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C. A. Luecke, H. W. Wijesekera, E. Jarosz, D. W. Wang, J. C. Wesson, S. U. P. Jinadasa, H. J. S. Fernando, and W. J. Teague

variability within the BoB. Quantification of mixing in the BoB is therefore critical for the understanding of water-mass exchange, and vertical transfer of heat and salinity between subsurface and surface waters. Forcing from the monsoon, coupled with energetic mesoscale and submesoscale features, complicates the regional circulation, and as a consequence, the mechanisms that drive turbulent mixing and water-mass exchange between the BoB and the Arabian Sea are poorly understood. Furthermore, details of

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

case, the sun’s heat is spread throughout the mixed layer and warms each parcel of water by O (0.1°C) by midafternoon. In the latter case, warming is concentrated in the top 2 m and, consequently, more of this heat is likely to be transferred from the ocean back to the atmosphere over a short time scale. In between these extremes heat transport is more complicated. Warming of the lower half of the mixed layer, for example, lags the surface solar forcing by several hours because it depends on the

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, Emily L. Shroyer, and William D. Smyth

4a (500 × 2-m grid cells horizontally and 500 m deep with 0.2-m resolution near the surface), we force with a constant wind speed of 4 m s −1 , and we apply diurnal heating that has zero net heat input on daily average ( Fig. 8a ). Penetrating solar radiation is treated with a nine-band formulation with a solar-angle dependence described by Gentemann et al. (2009) . Because the grid is two-dimensional ( x – z ), we set Coriolis frequency f to zero rather than let the diurnal jet veer

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Jai Sukhatme, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Jennifer MacKinnon, S. Shivaprasad, and Debasis Sengupta

and wave modes in 3D rotating stratified flows: Random large-scale forcing . Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. , 102 , 437 – 455 , https://doi.org/10.1080/03091920801915318 . 10.1080/03091920801915318 Sukhatme , J. , A. J. Majda , and L. M. Smith , 2012 : Two-dimensional moist stratified turbulence and the emergence of vertically sheared horizontal flows . Phys. Fluids , 24 , 036602 , https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3694805 . 10.1063/1.3694805 Sun , Y. Q. , R. Rotunno , and F. Zhang

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D. A. Cherian, E. L. Shroyer, H. W. Wijesekera, and J. N. Moum

the SMC which threads a pathway between the Sri Lanka Dome to the north and the anticyclone to the south ( Vinayachandran et al. 1999 ; Wijesekera et al. 2016 ). During the NE monsoon, the mean circulation in southern Bay reverses and the Northeast Monsoon Current flows westward with a weaker signal in EKE ( Figs. 2a,b ). Fig . 2. Seasonal cycle of forcing and circulation in the Bay of Bengal for 2014. White dots mark mooring locations used in the study. (top) Seasonal mean geostrophic eddy

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

km to the right of the track) and BD10 (near the track) employ temperature and salinity initial conditions constructed from the mooring data interpolated in the vertical. Model vertical resolution is 0.25 m, and the time step is 1 h. Surface forcing is based on observed hourly incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, and turbulent fluxes are estimated from hourly moored measurements of air temperature, surface pressure, sea surface temperature, relative humidity, and wind using the COARE 3

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

surface water was typically advected 3 km farther per day than water at 30 m. The shear that occurs between the diurnal jet and the mixed layer (0.03 s −1 ; Sutherland et al. 2016 ; Bogdanoff 2017 ) is comparable to that found in estuarine flows (0.05 s −1 ; Stacey and Pond 1997 ), at the base of internal solitary waves (0.05 s −1 ; Moum et al. 2003 ), and in the sheared layer above the equatorial undercurrent (0.02 s −1 ; Smyth et al. 2013 ). Under weak forcing (wind < 2 m s −1 ), clear sky, and

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