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Gloria L. Manney, Michelle L. Santee, Zachary D. Lawrence, Krzysztof Wargan, and Michael J. Schwartz

rainfall and low-level temperatures or winds (e.g., Kajikawa et al. 2012 ; Preethi et al. 2017 ; Kodera et al. 2019 ; Brönnimann et al. 2016 ; Wu et al. 2020 ; and references therein), and some suggest a trend toward earlier monsoon onset in spring, with possible relationships to anthropogenic forcing (e.g., Kajikawa et al. 2012 ; Bollasina et al. 2013 , 2014 ; Bombardi et al. 2020 ). Near-surface metrics have been linked to the upper-level circulation, with, for example, westward and

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Lawrence Coy, Krzysztof Wargan, Andrea M. Molod, William R. McCarty, and Steven Pawson

(MERRA-2), system. The goal is not only to characterize the basic QBO structure in MERRA-2 but also to determine how the zonal momentum and ozone forcing terms interact with the data assimilation process in producing the reanalysis QBO signature. For comparison we also examine the earlier NASA MERRA system. In particular, Politowicz and Hitchman (1997) explored QBO forcing in terms of a two-dimensional model and found differences in the QBO response depending on which model term applied the forcing

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Lawrence Coy, Paul A. Newman, Steven Pawson, and Leslie R. Lait

typically observed. Vertically propagating equatorial waves are believed to be the principal forcing mechanism of the QBO ( Lindzen and Holton 1968 ). Selective filtering of vertically propagating waves by the QBO wind distribution coupled with the tendency of the waves to break or thermally dissipate, deposit momentum, and thereby dissipate in regions of the QBO wind shear produce appropriately signed zonal wind accelerations that effectively lower the shear regions by approximately 1 km month −1

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Rolf H. Reichle, Q. Liu, Randal D. Koster, Clara S. Draper, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, and Gary S. Partyka

-generated precipitation, however, is corrected with precipitation observations before reaching the land surface. Observation-corrected precipitation was also used in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR; Saha et al. 2010 ; Meng et al. 2012 ) and in MERRA-Land ( Reichle et al. 2011 ; Reichle 2012 ). The latter is an offline, land-only reanalysis product. It provides significantly better land surface moisture storage dynamics than the original MERRA product because the MERRA-Land precipitation forcing was

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Rolf H. Reichle, Clara S. Draper, Q. Liu, Manuela Girotto, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, Randal D. Koster, and Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy

both the MERRA-Land precipitation and the (uncorrected) AGCM-generated precipitation from MERRA-2 and MERRA. Moreover, in MERRA-2 the precipitation is corrected within the coupled atmosphere–land modeling system, allowing the near-surface air temperature and humidity to respond to the improved precipitation forcing. MERRA-2 thus provides more self-consistent surface meteorological data than were used for MERRA-Land ( Reichle et al. 2017 ). This enhanced self-consistency in the forcing data also

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Young-Kwon Lim, Robin M. Kovach, Steven Pawson, and Guillaume Vernieres

anomalies produced by the GEOS Ocean Data Assimilation System (ODAS) are examined for the boreal winter period of three El Niño events. Difference fields in Fig. 4 (right) show that the westerly current anomaly is relatively weaker in 2015/16 along the equatorial Pacific, compared to the earlier two super El Niño events ( Fig. 4 , top and middle right). Details on the near-surface zonal wind anomaly as a forcing to trigger the westerly ocean current anomaly and grow El Niño will be further discussed

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Richard I. Cullather and Sophie M. J. Nowicki

. DiGirolamo , and G. Neumann , 2009 : Evaluation of surface and near-surface melt characteristics on the Greenland ice sheet using MODIS and QuikSCAT data . J. Geophys. Res. , 114 , F04006 , . Hanna , E. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Atmospheric and oceanic climate forcing of the exceptional Greenland ice sheet surface melt in summer 2012 . Int. J. Climatol. , 34 , 1022 – 1037 , . 10.1002/joc.3743 Hanna , E. , T. E

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Franklin R. Robertson, Michael G. Bosilovich, and Jason B. Roberts

Halpert 1987 ; Dai and Wigley 2000 ; Gu et al. 2007 ; Robertson et al. 2014 ). Midlatitude storm-track changes embodying teleconnections with tropical forcing also have significant variations at higher latitudes. Over longer time scales Pacific decadal variability [PDV or Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO); e.g., Power et al. 1999 ; Dai 2013 ; Lyon et al. 2014 ] and other basin-scale phenomena [e.g., the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO); Enfield et al. 2001 ; Sutton and Hodson 2005

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Michael G. Bosilovich, Franklin R. Robertson, Lawrence Takacs, Andrea Molod, and David Mocko

boundary forcing. 2. Data a. Reanalyses Presently there are several contemporary reanalysis datasets and different configurations of reanalyses that can provide context for the changes in the water cycle from MERRA to MERRA-2. ERA-Interim is the latest from ECMWF ( Dee et al. 2011 ), and it supersedes their previous reanalysis (ERA-40; all acronyms are listed in appendix B ). Likewise, The Japanese 55-year Reanalysis ( Ebita et al. 2011 ; Kobayashi et al. 2015 ) supersedes the previous JRA-25

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Ronald Gelaro, Will McCarty, Max J. Suárez, Ricardo Todling, Andrea Molod, Lawrence Takacs, Cynthia A. Randles, Anton Darmenov, Michael G. Bosilovich, Rolf Reichle, Krzysztof Wargan, Lawrence Coy, Richard Cullather, Clara Draper, Santha Akella, Virginie Buchard, Austin Conaty, Arlindo M. da Silva, Wei Gu, Gi-Kong Kim, Randal Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Dagmar Merkova, Jon Eric Nielsen, Gary Partyka, Steven Pawson, William Putman, Michele Rienecker, Siegfried D. Schubert, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Bin Zhao

assimilated within a global data assimilation system. Other new developments in MERRA-2 relevant to IESA focus on aspects of the cryosphere and stratosphere, including the representation of ozone, and on the use of precipitation observations to force the land surface. At the same time, basic aspects of the MERRA-2 system, such as the variational analysis algorithm and observation handling, are largely unchanged since MERRA. Also unchanged is the preparation of most conventional data sources used

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