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Yoshi N. Sasaki and Chisato Umeda

. Cai et al. (2017) also demonstrated the importance of ocean advection on the SST warming of the East China Sea using a reanalysis product from 1958 to 2014. On the other hand, Yeh and Kim (2010) investigated the wintertime SST trend of the East China Sea from 1950 to 2008 using observational and reanalysis datasets and revealed that the SST rise was caused by surface latent and sensible heat flux forcings associated with the North Pacific oscillation–like sea level pressure changes. It needs to

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Morio Nakayama, Hisashi Nakamura, and Fumiaki Ogawa

landmass and sea ice exist, the forcing of planetary waves as in the Northern Hemisphere is suppressed, allowing us to investigate the fundamental dynamics of the BAM. The rest of this paper is structured as follows. Details of the aquaplanet experiments and analysis procedures are described in section 2 . After an overview of the climatological-mean fields simulated in our experiments is presented in section 3 , characteristics of the BAM and the effect of the oceanic frontal zone are described in

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Hyodae Seo, Hajoon Song, Larry W. O’Neill, Matthew R. Mazloff, and Bruce D. Cornuelle

directly associated with the SST/THF changes in the Agulhas retroflection illustrate the consequence of sea surface warming and strengthening of the meridional SST gradient by the RW effect. Over the Agulhas retroflection, where the oceanic forcing of the low-level baroclinicity is strongest, the storm track achieves significant intensification. Farther downstream, this analysis hints at the strengthening of the secondary storm track extending from Africa to merge with the main storm track. However

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, and Akira Kuwano-Yoshida

( Lau 1997 ; Alexander et al. 2002 ) and internal atmospheric variability ( Frankignoul 1985 ; Kushnir et al. 2002 ). In fact, Robinson (2000) reported difficulties in atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments to yield systematic atmospheric responses to prescribed midlatitude SST anomalies. It has been suggested recently (e.g., Taguchi et al. 2012 ), however, that persistent SST anomalies in the North Pacific subarctic frontal zone (SAFZ) can force basin-scale atmospheric

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, and Robert A. Tomas

SST anomaly does not move far on monthly time scales.) This definition follows the finding by Sérazin et al. (2015) that in high-resolution models most of the small-scale SSH variability is intrinsic, and intrinsic motions also contribute in a nonnegligible fashion to large-scale variability of SSH. This notion will be expanded upon in a follow-on paper that aims to separate out the contributions of heat content variability due to atmosphere-forcing by air–sea heat fluxes, versus atmosphere

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Raffaele Montuoro, Hisashi Nakamura, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu

frontal regions, on the other hand, can lead to an equatorward shift of the entire low-level atmospheric circulation system, including the surface westerlies, jet streams, and subtropical high pressure belt ( Sampe et al. 2010 ). By comparing atmosphere-only model simulations forced by prescribed SSTs, Taguchi et al. (2009) showed a reduced storm-track activity in response to a weakened SST gradient forcing due to the decreased meridional gradient of turbulent heat fluxes and moisture fluxes across

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, Masato Mori, and Yu Kosaka

1. Introduction Owing to greater persistence of SST anomalies than atmospheric anomalies, a robust atmospheric response to oceanic forcing, if any, could contribute to improvement in seasonal forecast skill. Influence of extratropical SST anomalies on the large-scale atmospheric circulation has long been believed to be insignificant, in the presence of a prevailing remote influence from the tropics ( Lau 1997 ; Alexander et al. 2002 ) and large intrinsic atmospheric variability ( Frankignoul

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Kotaro Katsube and Masaru Inatsu

linearized around the basic state. The basic state, which comprises zonal and meridional wind, temperature, and surface pressure, is defined as the 31-day time average around the date for which the forcing is given from the JRA-55 data. Spectral T42 resolution is used in the horizontal directions, and there are 20 vertical levels, using the sigma coordinate. The LBM includes Rayleigh damping and Newtonian cooling. Because the response mostly achieves a steady state by 8 days (see section 4b ), the

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Yi-Hui Wang and W. Timothy Liu

; Minobe et al. 2008 ; Tokinaga et al. 2009 ). The local imprints of ocean currents, including surface wind, precipitation, and cloud formation, are well represented in satellite data from over a short period of just a few years. Two mechanisms, the vertical mixing mechanism and the pressure adjustment mechanism, have been proposed to explain the processes behind the ocean forcing on the overlying boundary layer at frontal scales. The vertical mixing mechanism attributes the correspondence of the SST

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Dimitry Smirnov, Matthew Newman, Michael A. Alexander, Young-Oh Kwon, and Claude Frankignoul

1. Introduction Large-scale extratropical ocean–atmosphere interaction has long been recognized as dominated by atmospheric forcing of the ocean ( Davis 1976 ; Frankignoul and Hasselmann 1977 ; Frankignoul 1985 ). However, ocean–atmosphere coupling varies considerably across the midlatitude ocean basins, with oceanic processes likely to be more important to sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the vicinity of the western boundary currents (WBCs) and their associated SST fronts ( Qiu

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