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Yvonne Boose, Zamin A. Kanji, Monika Kohn, Berko Sierau, Assaf Zipori, Ian Crawford, Gary Lloyd, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Erik Herrmann, Piotr Kupiszewski, Martin Steinbacher, and Ulrike Lohmann

. 2011 ). Many studies have been performed by collecting aerosol particles on filters and subsequently exposing them to controlled cooling in the laboratory under sub- or supersaturated conditions with respect to water ( Bigg 1967 ; Klein et al. 2010 ; Santachiara et al. 2010 ; Conen et al. 2012 ; Ardon-Dryer and Levin 2014 ; Knopf et al. 2014 ; Mason et al. 2015 ). Other common techniques are the use of isothermal cloud chambers or continuous flow diffusion chambers (CFDC), which allow online

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Wojciech W. Grabowski

increasing CCN) simply because different convective systems develop over the subdomain (cf. Fig. 7 therein). Applying the piggybacking technique to simulations as in Gayatri et al. (2017) would allow accurate estimation of aerosol effects over a subdomain as well. Work is in progress to incorporate the piggybacking technique into the NCAR’s Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model used in the Gayatri et al. (2017) study. Finally, the novel use of the piggybacking methodology presented here

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Baolin Jiang, Bo Huang, Wenshi Lin, and Suishan Xu

aerosols and the atmosphere requires fully coupled models, among which the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is a representative online model ( Grell et al. 2005 ) that can provide prognostic CCN size distributions, compositions, and number concentrations. Using WRF-Chem, we conducted three simulations to investigate the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on the precipitation, thermodynamic structure, and microphysical processes of Typhoon Usagi (2013). This typhoon

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Luke B. Hande, C. Hoose, and C. Barthlott

concentrations are mostly lower than those suggested by the Meyers et al. (1992) parameterization, except when the aerosol size becomes large. 3. Application in a simulation of a deep convective cloud a. Model description The nonhydrostatic regional-weather-forecasting Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling (COSMO) Model, version 5.01 ( Schättler et al. 2008 ), was run at high resolutions capable of resolving energy-containing turbulence ( Barthlott and Hoose 2015 ). To evaluate the above parameterization and

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

.1175/2008JAS2909.1 . Hiranuma , N. , and Coauthors , 2015 : A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: A comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 15 , 2489 – 2518 , doi: 10.5194/acp-15-2489-2015 . Hogan , R. J. , M. D. Behera , E. J. O’Connor , and A. J. Illingworth , 2004 : Estimate of the global distribution of stratiform supercooled liquid water clouds using the LITE lidar . Geophys. Res. Lett

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