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Lixion A. Avila and Jamie Rhome

the first tropical storm, with the formation of Tropical Storm Alvin on 27 May, immediately followed by the formation of Tropical Storm Barbara on 29 May. The long-term (1971–2006) median start day is 29 May. No other named cyclone developed until the depression that eventually became Hurricane Cosme formed on 14 July. Flossie was the only major hurricane of the season and the intensification occurred just before it entered the central Pacific hurricane basin at 140°W. Using analysis techniques

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Robert J. Berg and Lixion A. Avila

profiles in hurricanes and their operational implications . Wea. Forecasting , 18 , 32 –– 44 . Gray , W. M. , 1984 : Atlantic seasonal hurricane frequency. Part I: El Niñño and 30-mb Quasi-Biennial Oscillation influences . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 112 , 1649 –– 1668 . Hebert , P. J. , and K. O. Poteat , 1975 : A satellite classification technique for subtropical cyclones . NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS SR-83, 25 pp . Jarvinen , B. R. , and C. J. Neumann , 1979 : Statistical forecasts of tropical

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Eric S. Blake and Richard J. Pasch

(GOES). GOES-East and GOES-West provide the visible and infrared imagery that serves as input for intensity estimates using the Dvorak (1984) classification technique. Subjective Dvorak intensity estimates utilized by NHC are performed at the Tropical Analysis and Forecast Branch (TAFB) in Miami, Florida, and at the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) in Camp Springs, Maryland. The NHC also makes use of the Advanced Dvorak Technique (ADT; Olander and Velden 2007 ), an objective method that also

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James L. Franklin, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven II, Miles B. Lawrence, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

storms, three fewer than normal, formed during this period. While sea surface temperatures were at or above normal over most of the basin during this time, atmospheric conditions appear to have been less favorable. Figure 2 shows the monthly anomalies of 200–850-mb vertical wind shear for the months of August and September, calculated using twice-daily analyses from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/National Weather Service's Global Forecast System (GFS) and long-term means

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Todd B. Kimberlain and Michael J. Brennan

are almost exclusively obtained from satellites, with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) serving as the primary platform. GOES-East and GOES-West provide the visible and infrared imagery that serves as input for intensity estimates based on the Dvorak (1984) classification technique. Subjective Dvorak intensity estimates utilized by NHC are performed by NHC’s Tropical Analysis and Forecast Branch (TAFB) and the

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Eric S. Blake and Todd B. Kimberlain

by NHC are performed by NHC’s Tropical Analysis and Forecast Branch (TAFB) and the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) in Camp Springs, Maryland. The Advanced Dvorak Technique (ADT; Olander and Velden 2007 ) is an objective method from University of Wisconsin–Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (UW-CIMSS) that also provides geostationary satellite intensity estimates of tropical cyclones. Geostationary imagery is supplemented by passive microwave imagery from NOAA polar

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Lixion A. Avila and Stacy R. Stewart

as the primary platforms. GOES-East and Meteosat-9 provide the visible and infrared imagery that serve as input for position and intensity estimates based on the Dvorak classification technique ( Dvorak 1984 ; Velden et al. 2006 ). Subjective Dvorak intensity estimates used by NHC are performed by NHC's Tropical Analysis and Forecast Branch (TAFB) and the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) in Camp Springs, Maryland. The Advanced Dvorak Technique (ADT; Olander and Velden 2007 ) is an objective

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Stacy R. Stewart and John P. Cangialosi

performed by NHC’s Tropical Analysis and Forecast Branch (TAFB) and the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) in Camp Springs, Maryland. The advanced Dvorak technique (ADT; Olander and Velden 2007 ) is an objective method that also provides satellite intensity estimates of tropical cyclones using geostationary imagery. Geostationary imagery is occasionally supplemented by passive microwave imagery from NOAA polar-orbiting satellites, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, the U.S. Navy

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Edward N. Rappaport

seasonal hurricane frequency: El Niño and 30 mb quasi-biennial oscillation influences. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 1649–1668. Hebert, P. J., and K. O. Poteat, 1975: A satellite classification technique for subtropical cyclones. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS SR-83, Fort Worth, TX, 23 pp. [NTIS COM 75-11220/AS.] . Jarvinen, B. R., and C. J. Neumann, 1979: Statistical forecasts of tropical cyclone intensity for the North Atlantic basin. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS NHC-10, 22

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John L. Beven II, Lixion A. Avila, James L. Franklin, Miles B. Lawrence, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

eastern North Pacific basin. Tropical Cyclone intensity estimates can be obtained from the imagery using the Dvorak (1984) technique. Such estimates, or “classifications,” are provided every 6 h by the Tropical Analysis and Forecast Branch (TAFB) of the Tropical Prediction Center, the Satellite Analysis Branch of the National Environmental, Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS), and the Air Force Weather Agency. Geostationary satellites are also the source for wind vectors derived from

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