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Simon T. K. Lang, Sarah C. Jones, Martin Leutbecher, Melinda S. Peng, and Carolyn A. Reynolds

). For the EPS, SVs are calculated for the extratropics of the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Extra sets of SVs are added for tropical cyclones (TCs) ( Puri et al. 2001 ). A further area where SV techniques are applied is for targeted observations ( Palmer et al. 1998 ; Leutbecher 2003 ). SV calculations are carried out usually at relatively low resolution [T42 (≈320 km) for the operational EPS] and therefore the forecast used to calculate the SVs is not able to represent a TC properly because of

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Franziska Teubler and Michael Riemer

wave packets (RWPs) for weather forecasting has long been recognized ( Cressman 1948 ; Hovmöller 1949 ). The role of RWPs as precursors to high-impact weather events has more recently been given special attention ( Shapiro and Thorpe 2004 ; Chang 2005 ; Martius et al. 2008 ; Wirth and Eichhorn 2014 ; Piaget et al. 2015 ). The investigation of RWPs along the midlatitude waveguide is the focus of this study. It is generally expected that RWPs, as large-scale flow features obeying balanced

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Jana Čampa and Heini Wernli

1. Introduction a. Cyclone climatologies and climatologies of their characteristics Extratropical cyclones are the most important actors in determining daily weather in midlatitudes because of the strong winds and intense precipitation typically associated with them. Therefore, understanding of their structure and dynamics is of great importance for providing a reliable weather forecast. Several recent climatological studies deal with extratropical cyclones and their properties. Most of them

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Olivia Martius and Heini Wernli

to an increase in angular momentum. Both the angular momentum and the PV perspective will be used to study the dynamics of a selection of subtropical jets in detail. Three synoptic episodes will be considered that occurred during the Northern Hemisphere winter of 2005/06 to illustrate and quantify different forcing mechanisms of subtropical jets using Lagrangian and Eulerian analysis techniques. With this approach we aim at addressing the following three main objectives of this study: Identify

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