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Humberto Vergara
,
Jonathan J. Gourley
, and
Michael Erickson

preliminary direction on novel uses of ensemble QPFs as forcing to hydrologic models that account for spatial uncertainties in the forecast precipitation fields. This study introduces a new method suitable for operational use called the neighboring pixel ensemble technique (NPET). NPET is a postprocessing algorithm that generates ensemble-based streamflow forecasts accounting for the location uncertainties in QPF forcing fields without the requirement of multiple hydrologic model runs in parallel

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Pengcheng Zhao
,
Quan J. Wang
,
Wenyan Wu
, and
Qichun Yang

commonly used ensemble reordering techniques are the Schaake shuffle ( Clark et al. 2004 ) and the ensemble copula coupling ( Schefzik et al. 2013 ; Schefzik 2017 ). The gridcell-by-gridcell postprocessing is widely implemented in a variety of studies and performs well in improving raw forecast precipitation fields ( Shrestha et al. 2015 ; Cattoën et al. 2020 ; Schepen et al. 2020 ; Shrestha et al. 2020 ; Li et al. 2022 ). However, the second step, i.e., ensemble reordering, is often problematic

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Michael Scheuerer
and
Thomas M. Hamill

of observed precipitation ( Park et al. 2008 ; Hamill et al. 2008 ; Bougeault et al. 2010 ). To obtain reliable probabilistic guidance from ensemble precipitation forecasts, a number of statistical postprocessing techniques have been proposed, including nonparametric methods such as the analog method ( Hamill and Whitaker 2006 ; Hamill et al. 2015 ) or decision-tree methods ( Herman and Schumacher 2018 ; Whan and Schmeits 2018 ), and parametric approaches such as extended logistic regression

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Joseph Bellier
,
Brett Whitin
,
Michael Scheuerer
,
James Brown
, and
Thomas M. Hamill

for downstream applications such as hydrological modeling. Techniques generally used to this end are ensemble copula coupling (ECC; Schefzik et al. 2013 ), the Schaake shuffle ( Clark et al. 2004 ), or variants thereof (e.g., Ben Bouallègue et al. 2016 ; Schefzik 2016 ; Scheuerer et al. 2017 ; Bellier et al. 2017 ). This two-step process must, in the perspective of streamflow forecasting, be performed at the spatiotemporal scale of the hydrological model, i.e., at the specific lead times and

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Chih-Chiang Wei

economic losses and casualties ( Hsu and Wei 2007 ). Therefore, a useful scheme for quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) during typhoon periods is highly desired ( Chang et al. 1993 ; Lee et al. 2006 ; Wei and Hsu 2008a ). In Taiwan, Wang et al. (1986) first developed a technique using the climatology average method (a simple statistical approach developed from the spatial distribution of typhoon center) to forecast typhoon rainfalls over land in Taiwan. This method was adopted to be one of

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Sarah A. Baker
,
Andrew W. Wood
, and
Balaji Rajagopalan

climatological correction without considering forecast skill. The authors demonstrate that forecast calibration techniques (e.g., the Bayesian joint probability method) are needed to account for skill in the course of adjusting both forecast mean and forecast spread. Some statistical postprocessing techniques employ additional information from large-scale climate fields to improve dynamical model forecasts. Many studies have focused on improving seasonal precipitation and temperature forecasts ( DelSole and

Free access
Adam Winstral
,
Tobias Jonas
, and
Nora Helbig

probability density functions at 31 stations in the north-central United States from National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalyses data (~200 km resolution), while Curry et al. (2012) sought statistical relationships between climate forecast variables and similar reanalysis data to derive monthly Weibull distribution parameters. Huang et al. (2015) used a combination of physical and statistical nondynamic downscaling techniques to test if

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Jon Olav Skøien
,
Konrad Bogner
,
Peter Salamon
, and
Fredrik Wetterhall

therefore to consider the effect of different data transformation methods on forecast skill in general, and for floods in particular. This includes Box–Cox transformations, similar to what Hemri et al. (2015) used when analyzing multivariate postprocessing techniques for probabilistic hydrological forecasting, but also other transformations such as normal score and transformations based on the general extreme value (GEV) distributions. Section 2 of this paper describes the dataset used for

Open access
Ruud T. W. L. Hurkmans
,
Bart van den Hurk
,
Maurice Schmeits
,
Fredrik Wetterhall
, and
Ilias G. Pechlivanidis

various statistical post-processing techniques in the Canadian prairie region . Water , 10 , 1604 , https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111604 . Panofsky , H. , and G. Brier , 1958 : Some Applications of Statistics to Meteorology . Pennsylvania State University, 224 pp. Pechlivanidis , I. , L. Crochemore , J. Rosberg , and T. Bosshard , 2020 : What are the key drivers controlling the quality of seasonal streamflow forecasts? Water Resour. Res. , 56 , e2019WR026987 , https

Open access
Allen B. White
,
Daniel J. Gottas
,
Arthur F. Henkel
,
Paul J. Neiman
,
F. Martin Ralph
, and
Seth I. Gutman

averaged using the consensus technique described in White et al. (2002) . A 2-h window, centered on each forecast time, was used to match the observation data with the CNRFC forecast. This was done in an attempt to maximize the comparison sample population while still maintaining an accurate verification time. However, because the CNRFC forecasts are generated every 6 h, this selection process ignores two-thirds of the data collected between successive forecasts. When more than one radar snow level

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