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Bradley W. Klotz and David S. Nolan

. Wea. Rev. , 145 , 3989 – 4009 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-17-0019.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-17-0019.1 Knaff , J. , D. Brown , J. Courtney , G. Gallina , and J. Beven , 2010 : An evaluation of Dvorak technique–based tropical cyclone intensity estimates . Wea. Forecasting , 25 , 1362 – 1379 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010WAF2222375.1 . 10.1175/2010WAF2222375.1 Kosiba , K. A. , and J. Wurman , 2014 : Finescale dual-Doppler analysis of hurricane boundary structures in Hurricane

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Vasubandhu Misra and Amit Bhardwaj

year leads to unrealistic onset and demise dates of the NEM season as a result of the CA curve overlapping with the SISM season in boreal summer and fall seasons. It also becomes clear, from the analysis presented in the following section, why we avoid the use of rainfall for defining the onset and demise of the NEM. We make use of the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR; Saha et al. 2010 ) to make composites of upper-air and upper-ocean variables, and these are presented in the following

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Johna E. Rudzin, Lynn K. Shay, and Benjamin Jaimes de la Cruz

data are acquired from U.S. Air Force Reconnaissance flights, NOAA WP-3 flights, and NOAA G-IV flights ( Table 1 ). Next, the 10-m variables of wind speed, zonal and meridional wind components, specific humidity, and air temperature are extracted from each profile. Dropsonde locations are then transformed from Cartesian coordinates into a storm-coordinate system. This technique follows Jaimes et al. (2015) . The axes represent the along- and across-track storm fields. The storm-coordinate axis is

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Johannes Mohrmann, Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Jeremy McGibbon, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Bruce Albrecht, Mampi Sarkar, Paquita Zuidema, and Rabindra Palikonda

the subtropical MBL evolution of CSET sampled/resampled air masses, combining aircraft, geostationary satellite, and reanalysis data. Our work complements an Eulerian analysis of the CSET observations presented in Bretherton et al. (2019) , which uses compositing techniques to take advantage of the generally similar sampling during all the flight pairs and develop a statistical representation of the SCT. Bretherton et al. (2019) analyzes the mean state and variability of clouds, aerosols and

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Jenny V. Turton, Thomas Mölg, and Dirk Van As

investigate the meteorology and atmospheric processes present in this region. Because of the relatively short observational period in northeast Greenland (and especially over 79N glacier, where only four incomplete years of data are available), reanalysis data are used to extend the climatology back to 1979, within the region. A regional case study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model complements the observations and provides additional information on the links between synoptic

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Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Andrew Gettelman, Charles G. Bardeen, Bruce A. Albrecht, and Paquita Zuidema

with large-eddy simulations of many of the cruises ( McGibbon and Bretherton 2017 ) as well as satellite retrievals ( Painemal et al. 2015 ), global weather forecast model output ( Ahlgrimm et al. 2018 ), and reanalysis ( Kalmus et al. 2015 ). The focus of this paper is the Cloud System Evolution in the Trades (CSET) campaign in July–August 2015 ( Albrecht et al. 2019 ; hereafter A19 ). CSET aimed to document and understand cloud processes in the summertime Sc–Cu transition using airborne

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