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Mozhgan Amiramjadi, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Mohammad Mirzaei, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS), for nonorographic gravity waves, the amplitude at source level is set to a globally uniform value and adjusted by a prescribed relation for latitude and resolution (see section 5.3 in ECMWF 2018 ). This is a gross simplification of spatial variability and the complete neglect of temporal variability in the wave emission process. Following earlier work by Zülicke and Peters (2008) , a new approach to

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

. Data sources Operational analyses of the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are used to provide meteorological data to characterize the atmospheric situation. The 6-hourly operational analysis and hourly forecast fields of the IFS cycle 40r1 have a horizontal resolution on the reduced linear Gaussian grid of about 16 km (T L 1279) and 137 vertical model levels (L137) from the ground to ~80 km (0.01 hPa) with layer thicknesses gradually

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

higher altitudes (e.g., Siskind 2014 ). Thereby, the wind field and the thermal structure of the middle atmosphere are modified (e.g., Lindzen 1981 ; Holton and Alexander 2000 ). Internal gravity waves have been measured and analyzed with a large variety of active and passive remote sensing techniques as well as with in situ observations. These observational tools include airborne and ground-based lidars (e.g., Alexander et al. 2011 ; Dörnbrack et al 2002 ; Rauthe et al. 2008 ; Williams et al

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Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, and Markus Rapp

analyses valid at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC and 1-hourly high-resolution forecasts at intermediate lead times (+1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +7, +8, +9, +10, and +11 h) of the 0000 and 1200 UTC forecast runs of the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are further used to visualize the temporal evolution of the upstream conditions at 44.20°S, 167.50°E ( Fig. 1 ). The IFS cycle 40r1 has a horizontal resolution of about 16 km, 137 vertical model

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