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James D. Doyle, Qingfang Jiang, Ronald B. Smith, and Vanda Grubišić

, and (iii) evaluate the ability of high-resolution models to forecast the wave characteristics including three dimensionality. The paper that addresses these points is organized as follows. A description of the numerical model is contained in section 2 . The observational analysis is presented in section 3 . Numerical simulations results are discussed in section 4 and the summary and conclusions appear in section 5 . 2. Numerical model description The numerical simulations of

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James D. Doyle, Saša Gaberšek, Qingfang Jiang, Ligia Bernardet, John M. Brown, Andreas Dörnbrack, Elmar Filaus, Vanda Grubišić, Daniel J. Kirshbaum, Oswald Knoth, Steven Koch, Juerg Schmidli, Ivana Stiperski, Simon Vosper, and Shiyuan Zhong

including sensitivity of mountain-wave predictions to the model formulation. During the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX; Grubišić et al. 2008 ), high-resolution forecasts were routinely conducted to assist in mission planning using a number of different three-dimensional nonhydrostatic numerical models such as the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS 1 ; Hodur 1997 ), two dynamical cores of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), namely the Advanced Research

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Juerg Schmidli, Brian Billings, Fotini K. Chow, Stephan F. J. de Wekker, James Doyle, Vanda Grubišić, Teddy Holt, Qiangfang Jiang, Katherine A. Lundquist, Peter Sheridan, Simon Vosper, C. David Whiteman, Andrzej A. Wyszogrodzki, and Günther Zängl

1. Introduction Over mountain areas the evolution of the boundary layer is particularly complex as a result of the interaction between boundary layer turbulence and thermally induced mesoscale wind systems, such as the slope and valley winds (e.g., Rotach et al. 2008 ). As the horizontal resolution of operational forecasts progresses to finer resolution, a larger spectrum of thermally induced wind systems can be explicitly resolved. It is therefore useful to document the current state

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