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A. B. White, M. L. Anderson, M. D. Dettinger, F. M. Ralph, A. Hinojosa, D. R. Cayan, R. K. Hartman, D. W. Reynolds, L. E. Johnson, T. L. Schneider, R. Cifelli, Z. Toth, S. I. Gutman, C. W. King, F. Gehrke, P. E. Johnston, C. Walls, D. Mann, D. J. Gottas, and T. Coleman

goals: 1) to install a twenty-first-century observing system to help address California’s water and emergency management needs, 2) to provide a state-of-the-art numerical weather forecast model ensemble with a high-resolution nest over California, and 3) to develop decision support tools for weather and river forecasters and water managers. This project is part of the California Department of Water Resources (CA-DWR) Enhanced Flood Response and Emergency Preparedness Program. The HMT-Legacy project

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Laura Bianco, Daniel Gottas, and James M. Wilczak

1. Introduction The implementation of real-time data quality control is of fundamental importance for observations that are assimilated into operational numerical weather prediction models. One of the most vexing quality-control problems affecting radar wind profilers has been signal contamination from nocturnally migrating birds ( Wilczak et al. 1995 ). Although techniques have been developed that helped reduce the level of contamination ( Wilczak et al. 1995 ; Merritt 1995 ), these were

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S.-E. Gryning, E. Batchvarova, and R. Floors

discrepancies between measurements and model counterparts that are due to local terrain effects ( Hahmann et al. 2010 ; Boilley and Mahfouf 2012 ). Observed wind speeds at greater heights can show large differences when using different reanalysis data to reinitialize the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model ( Floors et al. 2013 ). Verification of data assimilation techniques is now possible with the advent of new types of instruments, such as wind Doppler lidars, that observe winds with high

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Elías Lau, Scott McLaughlin, Frank Pratte, Bob Weber, David Merritt, Maikel Wise, Gary Zimmerman, Matthew James, and Megan Sloan

height ( Hashiguchi et al. 1995 ; Cohn and Angevine 2000 ), cold front characterization ( Browning et al. 1998 ), heat and momentum fluxes ( Angevine et al. 1993 ), classification of precipitating clouds ( Williams et al. 1995 ), and rainfall drop size distributions ( Schafer et al. 2002 ). Operational applications include weather forecasting, air quality forecasting for urban areas, and wind shear determination at airports. Typical BL RWPs currently deployed utilize antenna arrays, either several

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