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David M. Schultz
and
Joseph M. Sienkiewicz

divergence: where E is the resultant deformation and β is the local angle between an isentrope and the axis of dilatation. Positive regions of frontogenesis indicate where isentropes are instantaneously being brought together by the horizontal flow, thereby increasing the horizontal potential temperature gradient. Negative regions of frontogenesis (or frontolysis) indicate where isentropes are instantaneously being spread apart by the horizontal flow, thereby weakening the horizontal potential

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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado
,
Laura H. Baker
,
Suzanne L. Gray
,
John Methven
, and
Robert S. Plant

baroclinic wave, cross-frontal circulations contribute to vertical motion. For example, frontogenesis at the cold front contributes to the ascent of the warm conveyor belt and descent of the dry intrusion behind. Semigeostrophic theory shows that the cross-frontal circulations are necessary to maintain approximate thermal wind balance in a time-dependent flow and therefore depend on its rate of change ( Hoskins and Bretherton 1972 ). Schultz and Sienkiewicz (2013) have used model diagnostics to show

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Geraint Vaughan
,
Bogdan Antonescu
,
David M. Schultz
, and
Christopher Dearden

. , 1954 : Frontogenesis and frontolysis as a three-dimensional process . J. Meteor. , 11 , 449 – 461 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1954)011<0449:FAFAAT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1954)011<0449:FAFAAT>2.0.CO;2 Newton , C. W. , 1958 : Variations in frontal structure of upper-level troughs . Geophysica , 6 , 357 – 375 . Nielsen-Gammon , J. W. , and D. A. Gold , 2008 : Potential vorticity diagnosis of the severe convective regime. Part II: The impact of idealized PV anomalies . Mon. Wea. Rev

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