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Sebastian Essink
Verena Hormann
Luca R. Centurioni
, and
Amala Mahadevan

1. Introduction Measuring kinematic properties is of particular interest at submesoscales (0.1–10 km length scales), where lateral buoyancy gradients are intensified by surface forcing, topographic interaction, frontogenesis, baroclinic instability, and turbulent thermal wind. Large local Rossby number Ro = ζ / f ∼ O ( 1 ) can be generated, where ζ = υ x − u y is the relative vorticity and f is the Coriolis frequency (e.g., Thomas et al. 2008 ; McWilliams 2016 ), along with

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G. Scialom
A. Protat
, and
Y. Lemaître

secondary low are identified from the horizontal and vertical velocity components and from the deformation profiles, depending on the considered area. The description of the system is consistent with the analysis of Lemaître et al. (1999) done using MANDOP. Moreover, an analysis of the deformation parameters indicates that frontogenesis occurs on the west side of the cloud head, and frontolysis occurs on its east side. This is in agreement with the temperature pattern of Lemaître et al. (1999) who

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