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David M. Schultz
and
Daniel Keyser

of the Shapiro–Keyser cyclone model shortly after its introduction, writing that the warm-frontal and polar-cold-frontal gradients of temperature distinctly separated (i.e., fractured) south of the cyclone triple point (junction of the cyclone’s warm and cold fronts). Horizontal frontogenesis diagnostics from a numerical simulation of this storm…show weak frontolysis...in this fracture region, and distinctly separated regions of warm and cold frontogenesis to the north and south. The Bergen

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David M. Schultz
,
Hans Volkert
,
Bogdan Antonescu
, and
Huw C. Davies

of frontogenesis and frontolysis (i.e., frontal strengthening and weakening, respectively) due to deformation, in a way that would later be quantified through the kinematic formulation by Petterssen (1936) ; extrapolated the frontogenesis and frontolysis fields globally to help explain the general circulation of the Earth’s atmosphere; discussed the influence of aerosols on atmospheric visibility, including salt and Saharan dust into Europe; and presented an early version of the Wegener

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Carl M. Thomas
and
David M. Schultz

, expressions such as F ( θ e ) can be useful for quantifying the rate of change of the magnitude of the horizontal gradient in θ e due to the horizontal wind field. The frontogenesis function can be either positive or negative, and some analyzed synoptic frontal zones may experience positive frontogenesis along some parts and negative frontogenesis (i.e., frontolysis) along other parts, as in the bent-back frontal zone of the Shapiro–Keyser model (e.g., Takayabu 1986 ; Shapiro and Keyser 1990

Open access