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Ryusuke Masunaga
,
Hisashi Nakamura
,
Takafumi Miyasaka
,
Kazuaki Nishii
, and
Youichi Tanimoto

frontogenesis processes through a frontogenesis function F (e.g., Miller 1948 ; Hoskins 1982 ; Ogura and Portis 1982 ), which is usually expressed as a time tendency in horizontal gradient of potential temperature in terms of divergence and deformation wind fields. In the present study, however, we slightly modify the frontogenesis function by expressing it as a time tendency of near-surface air temperature gradient. The particular expression may be derived from the thermodynamic equation for MABL on a

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Ryusuke Masunaga
,
Hisashi Nakamura
,
Bunmei Taguchi
, and
Takafumi Miyasaka

. 10.1017/S1350482798000553 Hoskins , B. J. , 1982 : The mathematical theory of frontogenesis . Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. , 14 , 131 – 151 , https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fl.14.010182.001023 . 10.1146/annurev.fl.14.010182.001023 Hotta , D. , and H. Nakamura , 2011 : On the significance of the sensible heat supply from the ocean in the maintenance of the mean baroclinicity along storm tracks . J. Climate , 24 , 3377 – 3401 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3910.1 . 10.1175/2010JCLI

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Ryusuke Masunaga
,
Hisashi Nakamura
,
Bunmei Taguchi
, and
Takafumi Miyasaka

://www.ecmwf.int/node/18765 . Hewson , T. D. , 1998 : Objective fronts . Meteor. Appl. , 5 , 37 – 65 , https://doi.org/10.1017/S1350482798000553 . 10.1017/S1350482798000553 Holton , J. R. , 2004 : An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology . 4th ed. Academic Press, 535 pp. Hoskins , B. J. , 1982 : The mathematical theory of frontogenesis . Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. , 14 , 131 – 151 , https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fl.14.010182.001023 . 10.1146/annurev.fl.14.010182.001023 Hoskins , B. J. , and P. J. Valdes

Open access
Ryusuke Masunaga
,
Hisashi Nakamura
,
Takafumi Miyasaka
,
Kazuaki Nishii
, and
Bo Qiu

( Fig. 17b ), while the contribution is negative (i.e., frontolysis) in the unstable regime ( Fig. 17a ). Monthly mean meridional wind confluence contributes positively to the maintenance of the baroclinic zone along the KE jet in each of its stable and unstable regimes ( Figs. 17d,e ), and the particular contribution is somewhat stronger in the stable regime ( Figs. 17e,f ). Fig . 17. (a)–(i) Wintertime composite maps of the dominant terms in frontogenetical function [K (100 km) −1 day −1

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Jennifer L. Catto
,
Erica Madonna
,
Hanna Joos
,
Irina Rudeva
, and
Ian Simmonds

WCBs during intensification of the horizontal temperature gradient, so these low values are consistent with a large number of dynamically less active fronts (i.e., those not undergoing strong frontogenesis or undergoing frontolysis) being identified. The frequency of cold fronts matching WCBs during JJA is higher than warm fronts or wind fronts matching WCBs. Between 20° and 40°S, there is a band of maximum proportion of fronts matching WCBs ( Figs. 5a,b ), in a pattern similar to that of WCB

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Amanda H. Lynch
,
Andrew G. Slater
, and
Mark Serreze

features are, by our definition, frontal features. The diagnostics also determine synoptic frontal passages (as shown in Fig. 3 ), and Fig. 9 shows no evidence of these features. Since frontal motion generally occurs by a process of frontogenesis ahead of the front and frontolysis behind the front, rather than simple advection (e.g., McInnes et al. 1994 ), this lack of fronts in the no-mountains experiment suggests a dominant role for the strong Alaskan topography in maintaining the passage of

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Croix E. Christenson
,
Jonathan E. Martin
, and
Zachary J. Handlos

high tropospheric jet stream . J. Meteor. , 6 , 330 – 336 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1949)006<0330:CTOTHT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1949)006<0330:CTOTHT>2.0.CO;2 Newton , C. W. , 1954 : Frontogenesis and frontolysis as a three-dimensional process . J. Meteor. , 11 , 449 – 461 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1954)011<0449:FAFAAT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1954)011<0449:FAFAAT>2.0.CO;2 Palmén , E. , and C. W. Newton , 1969 : Atmospheric Circulation Systems: Their Structure and Physical

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Kyle S. Griffin
and
Jonathan E. Martin

, doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1949)006<0330:CTOTHT>2.0.CO;2 . NCAR , 2015 : Command Language Version 6.3.0. UCAR/NCAR/CISL/TDD , doi: 10.5065/D6WD3XH5 . Newton , C. W. , 1954 : Frontogenesis and frontolysis as a three-dimensional process . J. Meteor. , 11 , 449 – 461 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1954)011<0449:FAFAAT>2.0.CO;2 . North , G. R. , T. L. Bell , R. F. Cahalan , and F. J. Moeng , 1982 : Sampling errors in the estimation of empirical orthogonal functions . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 110

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Zachary J. Handlos
and
Jonathan E. Martin

– 358 , doi: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1953.tb01066.x . Morrice , A. M. , 1973 : Quantitative forecasting of the winter monsoon in Hong Kong. Royal Observatory, Hong Kong, Tech. Note 35, 41 pp . Namias , J. , and P. F. Clapp , 1949 : Confluence theory of the high tropospheric jet stream . J. Meteor. , 6 , 330 – 336 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1949)006<0330:CTOTHT>2.0.CO;2 . Newton , C. W. , 1954 : Frontogenesis and frontolysis as a three-dimensional process . J. Meteor. , 11 , 449 – 461

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Neil C. G. Hart
,
Suzanne L. Gray
, and
Peter A. Clark

-Alvarado et al. (2013) . Thus, the choice of eight points in this study is more conservative and likely to miss more marginal cases. The lack of CSI for windstorm Ulli is consistent with the conclusion of Smart and Browning (2014) that “CSI did not play a major role” in the descending sting jet. The conclusion of the study of SS2013 in Schultz and Sienkiewicz (2013) was that forcing associated with frontolysis drives the descent of air in this storm. Results here show that CSI was however present in

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