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Ryusuke Masunaga
,
Hisashi Nakamura
,
Takafumi Miyasaka
,
Kazuaki Nishii
, and
Youichi Tanimoto

frontogenesis processes through a frontogenesis function F (e.g., Miller 1948 ; Hoskins 1982 ; Ogura and Portis 1982 ), which is usually expressed as a time tendency in horizontal gradient of potential temperature in terms of divergence and deformation wind fields. In the present study, however, we slightly modify the frontogenesis function by expressing it as a time tendency of near-surface air temperature gradient. The particular expression may be derived from the thermodynamic equation for MABL on a

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Ryusuke Masunaga
,
Hisashi Nakamura
,
Bunmei Taguchi
, and
Takafumi Miyasaka

://www.ecmwf.int/node/18765 . Hewson , T. D. , 1998 : Objective fronts . Meteor. Appl. , 5 , 37 – 65 , https://doi.org/10.1017/S1350482798000553 . 10.1017/S1350482798000553 Holton , J. R. , 2004 : An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology . 4th ed. Academic Press, 535 pp. Hoskins , B. J. , 1982 : The mathematical theory of frontogenesis . Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. , 14 , 131 – 151 , https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fl.14.010182.001023 . 10.1146/annurev.fl.14.010182.001023 Hoskins , B. J. , and P. J. Valdes

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Ryusuke Masunaga
,
Hisashi Nakamura
,
Takafumi Miyasaka
,
Kazuaki Nishii
, and
Bo Qiu

( Fig. 17b ), while the contribution is negative (i.e., frontolysis) in the unstable regime ( Fig. 17a ). Monthly mean meridional wind confluence contributes positively to the maintenance of the baroclinic zone along the KE jet in each of its stable and unstable regimes ( Figs. 17d,e ), and the particular contribution is somewhat stronger in the stable regime ( Figs. 17e,f ). Fig . 17. (a)–(i) Wintertime composite maps of the dominant terms in frontogenetical function [K (100 km) −1 day −1

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