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Takeyoshi Nagai
,
Amit Tandon
,
Eric Kunze
, and
Amala Mahadevan

( Kunze 1985 ; Whitt and Thomas 2013 ) and wind-generated waves may stall in fronts long after forcing. While these alternative possibilities cannot be discounted based on available data, here these observations motivate numerical investigation into the hypothesis that the observed near-inertial shear arises from internal dynamics associated with frontogenesis (frontal strengthening) and frontolysis (frontal weakening) of the Kuroshio Front. 3. Model simulation of the Kuroshio Front a. Model setup We

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Jonathan Gula
,
M. Jeroen Molemaker
, and
James C. McWilliams

) , which shows much stronger secondary circulation and intensification rate for cold filaments compared to warm ones. The cause is a horizontal deformation flow that acts on an isolated, favorably aligned filament, causing rapid narrowing and a two-celled secondary circulation with even stronger surface convergence and downwelling at its center than in frontogenesis for a monotonic density gradient (i.e., a conventional front). The Gulf Stream is full of fronts, filaments, and eddies at meso- and

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Roy Barkan
,
Kraig B. Winters
, and
Stefan G. Llewellyn Smith

-amplitude mixed layer eddies that can lead to intense frontogenesis, a precondition for LOB. Nevertheless, it is a balanced instability that does not lead directly to LOB ( Molemaker et al. 2005 ; Thomas et al. 2008 ); that is, additional instability mechanisms, such as the ones described above, must take place for LOB to occur. The indirect pathways to LOB due to MLI and other balanced phenomena are therefore assumed to be accounted for by the instability mechanisms i–iv above. Capet et al. (2008b) have

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