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Rory G. J. Fitzpatrick, Caroline L. Bain, Peter Knippertz, John H. Marsham, and Douglas J. Parker

). The AODM is triggered every year across most locations in West Africa except toward northern West Africa (14°–16°N). Interannual variability in the AODM is high over much of continental West Africa with local standard deviations of more than two weeks being common ( Fig. 1b ). Conversely, in the longitude bound 10°–20°W, local standard deviation of the AODM is generally lower than elsewhere within our studied region. The high variability of the AODM found over much of West Africa suggests that

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Stephanie N. Stevenson, Kristen L. Corbosiero, and Sergio F. Abarca

lightning (cloud-to-ground and intracloud) activity over the open oceans. The OTD instrument observed cloud-top lightning illumination with a 46%–69% detection efficiency and 20–40-km location accuracy during 1995–2000 ( Boccippio et al. 2000 ). The LIS instrument, a follow-on to the OTD sensor, collected data during 1998–2015 with a detection efficiency of 62%–97% depending on the time of day ( Boccippio et al. 2002 ). Cecil and Zipser (1999) analyzed the relationship between satellite

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Mateusz Taszarek, Bartosz Czernecki, and Aneta Kozioł

intensity of thunderstorms ( Rakov and Uman 2003 ). Storms with either one lightning strike or thousands of flashes are reported as one thunderstorm. This however can be examined using lightning detection that allows one to count the number of flashes on particular days and in particular locations. CG lightning flash climatologies based on data from ground-based lightning detection networks have been developed for some European countries. a. Central Europe Based on data recorded between 1992 and 2001

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Shun-ichi I. Watanabe, Hiroshi Niino, and Wataru Yanase

and Niino 2014 ). Fig . 2. Geographical distribution of the locations of individual PMCs observed in satellite images over the Sea of Japan and its vicinity during the winter of 1983/84 (adapted from A88 ). The large, medium, and small dots correspond to the PMCs with horizontal scale 150–300, 70–150, and 20–70 km, respectively. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the development of PMCs. Asai and Miura (1981) and Nagata (1993) suggested that small PMCs are related to the horizontal

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Thomas W. Collow, Wanqiu Wang, Arun Kumar, and Jinlun Zhang

December averaged for 2009–13 between 170° and 200°E. The NASA Team and NASA Bootstrap data were essentially the same with a strong seasonal cycle ( Figs. 5e,f ). Taking the location of 15%–30% concentration to measure the sea ice evolution, the observed sea ice retreated northward from near 65°N in June to 76°N in August and September and then expanded southward reaching 62°N in December. CFSv2CFSR produced weak seasonal cycle with 15%–30% concentration reaching slightly to the north of 70°N in

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Roderick van der Linden, Andreas H. Fink, Tan Phan-Van, and Long Trinh-Tuan

a resting period during the dry season. Besides impacts on the cultivation of coffee and other agricultural products, heavy rainfall bears a risk of flooding and landslides. Fig . 1. Topographic map of the study area. Map of Vietnam and adjacent countries and zoom in on the Central Highlands region. Numbers in the zoomed map correspond with the locations of stations that are used for the analysis of rainfall events ( Figs. 2 , 6 , 9 , and 12 ). The stations are listed in Table 1 . The dashed

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Stephen D. Nicholls and Steven G. Decker

defined as the first 0.5-mm (~0.02 in.) precipitation reading from the New Jersey Weather and Climate Network ( Robinson 2005 ). A smaller threshold is not used so that we avoid capturing isolated showers well ahead of the primary precipitation shield. A New Jersey–centric approach was chosen because of its high population density (461.6 km −2 ), significant contribution [$473 billion (U.S. dollars)] to the U.S. gross domestic product, and its central location in the mid-Atlantic ( U.S. Census Bureau

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H. Reed Ogrosky and Samuel N. Stechmann

average is removed from each dynamical field prior to the regression in order to remove the effects of low-frequency variability due to, for example, ENSO. A separate regression equation is solved for each variable at each longitude, latitude, pressure level, and time lag. The resulting linear regression coefficients are then used to produce a composite picture of the evolution of each wave type. In these composites, the winds are plotted only at locations where they are deemed to be significant at

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Ronald L. Holle, Kenneth L. Cummins, and William A. Brooks

stroke location accuracy (LA) have been validated over Florida ( Mallick et al. 2014 ). The validation showed a GLD360 CG flash DE (relative to the NLDN in Florida) of 67%, a CG stroke DE of 37%, and a CG stroke median LA of 2.0 km. The performance of GLD360 over North America is estimated to be a CG flash DE of 70% and a median CG stroke LA of 2–5 km. GLD360 stroke densities in the second portion of this study are also in 20 km by 20 km grid squares within geographical boundaries extending beyond

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Abdullah Kahraman, Şeyda Tilev-Tanriover, Mikdat Kadioglu, David M. Schultz, and Paul M. Markowski

most likely in interior Turkey, although the maximum in hail days lies in northeastern Turkey, where peak frequencies approach 2 hail days per month. As hail frequencies decline in late summer and fall toward the winter minimum, hail probabilities decline most slowly in extreme northeastern Turkey. Fig . 6. Locations of large and very large hail cases in Turkey and topography. Fig . 7. Geographical distribution of all hail days (shaded) and locations of severe hail (red triangles) per month. All

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