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Seth P. Tuler, Thomas Webler, and Jason L. Rhoades

the efforts of governments and nongovernmental entities to manage stormwater and its impacts ( Funkhouser 2007 ; Hirschman et al. 2011 ; Zhou et al. 2012 ). For example, alterations in the seasonality, duration, form, and amount of precipitation can lead to different stormwater flows. For many North American communities, climate change and variability will likely mean an increased likelihood of flooding, although there will be regional variation ( Hirschman et al. 2011 ; Melillo et al. 2014

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Leandro Ponsoni, Borja Aguiar-González, Herman Ridderinkhof, and Leo R. M. Maas

computation of the geostrophic velocity field and its associated transport (e.g., Fomin 1964 ) depends on the choice of a velocity reference level (and salinity estimates in the XBT case). Additionally, factors such as time variability, geographical location, and differences in the horizontal and vertical scales involved in the geostrophic calculations also contributed to the disparities in the EMC volume transport found in the literature: 20–24 Sv ( Wyrtki 1971 ), 35 Sv ( Harris 1972 ), 41 Sv

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Daniel B. Ferguson, Anna Masayesva, Alison M. Meadow, and Michael A. Crimmins

information messages into, within, and out of any definable entity; and b) determine the criteria by which the value of information messages will be judged.” We therefore focused on understanding what affects the circulation and use of information into, within, and out of the HDNR and tried to understand how that information will be seen as valuable or not within both the HDNR and with the broader tribal leadership. The goals for the interviews with non-HDNR drought stakeholders were 1) to better

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Anthony R. Poggioli and Alexander R. Horner-Devine

control—that is, the flow is critical there—in the absence of varying channel topography. However, if there are significant lateral constrictions present in the estuary, the relevant control may be a channel constriction and not the river mouth. This is because flow constrictions satisfy the regularity conditions, which are necessary local topographic conditions (e.g., db / dx = 0) for the existence of a hydraulic control ( Armi 1986 ). Denoting the location of the control as x = 0, the first

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Diandong Ren and Lance M. Leslie

simulate the geographical distribution of storm genesis locations as well as seasonal cycles and interannual variability of tropical cyclone frequency for the major basins (e.g., Zhao and Held 2010 ). For twenty-first-century projection, we only examine the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B emission scenario runs. 3. Methods A range of statistical techniques is employed to determine trends in TC activity. Here, TC activity is taken as mean annual frequency, and the genesis and

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Michael A. Spall

world in any detailed manner, names based on the real geography will be used to describe the model configuration and in discussion of the results. The maximum bottom depth is 1000 m, with a 100-km-wide region of sloping topography around the basin perimeter. The actual Arctic Ocean is much deeper than 1000 m, but the main focus of this study in on the circulation in the Atlantic layer (shallower than 1000 m) and development of the halocline. There is a 300-m-tall ridge that separates the Arctic

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Rory G. J. Fitzpatrick, Caroline L. Bain, Peter Knippertz, John H. Marsham, and Douglas J. Parker

). The AODM is triggered every year across most locations in West Africa except toward northern West Africa (14°–16°N). Interannual variability in the AODM is high over much of continental West Africa with local standard deviations of more than two weeks being common ( Fig. 1b ). Conversely, in the longitude bound 10°–20°W, local standard deviation of the AODM is generally lower than elsewhere within our studied region. The high variability of the AODM found over much of West Africa suggests that

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Laurie Yung, Nicky Phear, Alayna DuPont, Jess Montag, and Daniel Murphy

Abstract

Agricultural producers may be particularly vulnerable to climate impacts, such as drought. To better understand how ranchers respond to ongoing drought and the relationship between climate change beliefs and drought adaptation, in-depth interviews with working ranchers were conducted. Ranchers described drought conditions as unprecedented and detailed the interacting impacts of drought and nonclimatic stressors. They viewed adaptation as critical and employed a wide range of responses to drought, but lack of financial resources, risks associated with change, local social norms, and optimism about future moisture created barriers to change. Most ranchers attributed drought to natural cycles and were skeptical about anthropogenic climate change. Many ranchers likened current drought conditions to past droughts, concluding that conditions would return to “normal.” A belief in natural cycles provided a sense of hope for some ranchers but felt immutable to others, reducing their sense of agency and efficacy. Taken together, climate skepticism, optimism about future conditions, lack of financial resources, and a limited sense of agency might be reducing investments in long-term adaptation. However, the relationship between climate change beliefs and adaptation action was not entirely clear, since the handful of ranchers adapting in anticipation of long-term drought were skeptical or uncertain about anthropogenic climate change. Further, most ranchers characterized adaptation as an individual endeavor and resisted government involvement in drought adaptation. In the context of climate skepticism and antigovernment sentiment, strategies to scale up adaptation efforts beyond the household will only succeed to the extent that they build on local norms and ideologies.

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Edward D. Zaron and David A. Jay

level records (stations west of the date line). Table 2. Hourly Sea level records (stations east of the date line). The stations are located throughout the North and South Pacific; although, a disproportionate number are located on the Hawaiian Islands, and there are only three stations to the east of 210°E ( Fig. 1 ). The stations were selected from the UHSLC holdings based on the length of the time series at each site and on their location away from continental shelves and coasts. All of the

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Ilker Fer

respect to azimuth. The instrument sampled velocity profiles at 3-s intervals in 8-m-thick cells with the first cell centered at about 13 m. Data recorded in beam coordinates were referenced to geographic north using time series of precise differential global positioning satellite (DGPS) measurements of the local ice orientation. Absolute water velocity was obtained by adding the DGPS-derived ice velocity vector to the relative velocity profile. For the analysis, the velocity profiles were averaged in

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