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Ping Yang, Guoyu Ren, and Weidong Liu

. This phenomenon is known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Two different heat islands composed of a canopy layer and a boundary layer have been identified. The first layer is of a microscale nature, being dominated by the immediate surroundings, and the second layer is of a local or mesoscale nature, being affected by the presence of an urban area at its lower boundary ( Oke 1976 ). The most important features of urbanization are the urban structure, the urban cover, the urban fabric, and the

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Ji-Young Han and Jong-Jin Baik

examination of summer-season daily precipitation data from 1953 to 2002 for a network of 30 stations in the southeastern United States, Diem and Mote (2005) indicated that precipitation within and downwind of urbanized Atlanta, Georgia, may have been enhanced by urban effects. More observational studies of urban-induced precipitation are summarized in a review paper by Shepherd (2005) . The causes for urban-induced or urban-modified convective phenomena are proposed, which include the urban heat island

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A. Synnefa, A. Dandou, M. Santamouris, M. Tombrou, and N. Soulakellis

1. Introduction The ambient temperature in urban areas is usually several degrees higher than that of their surrounding suburban and rural areas. This phenomenon is called “the heat island effect” and represents a significant change in the urban microclimate. Summer urban heat islands (UHIs) with daytime air temperatures of 1°–6°C higher than the surrounding rural areas are present in many cities around the world ( Taha 1997a ; Santamouris 2006 ). In Athens, Greece, according to climatic

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Yan Chen and Ning Zhang

heat and moisture between the urban surface and atmosphere and form special meteorological phenomena in cities ( Arnfield 2003 ). One of the most important phenomena is the formation of urban heat islands (UHIs), which are the result of air temperature differences between urban and rural areas. A UHI directly impairs the human thermal environment in cities, especially during heat wave episodes ( Zhang et al. 2011 ; Wang et al. 2017 ; Ramamurthy et al. 2017 ). While heat waves are typically

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Liang Wang, Dan Li, Ning Zhang, Jianning Sun, and Weidong Guo

1. Introduction Urban population, which makes up more than half of the world’s population, is projected to reach 68% by 2050 ( United Nations 2019 ). A well-known consequence of urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI) effect, which describes the fact that urban areas are generally hotter than the surrounding rural areas, especially at night ( Oke et al. 2017 ). UHIs exacerbate the heat stress for city dwellers ( Mora et al. 2017 ; Rydin et al. 2012 ; Zhao et al. 2018 ) and threaten urban

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Mikhail A. Lokoshchenko

1. Introduction The urban heat island (UHI) is a well-known phenomenon that was first discovered in London, United Kingdom, by L. Howard ( Howard 1818 ). Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, it has been analyzed almost everywhere in the world ( Böer 1964 ; Kratzer 1956 ; Landsberg 1981 ; Oke 1978 ; etc.). As is known, almost every city and even every village creates its own canopy UHI (i.e., warmer air temperatures on average than the surrounding rural area, at least in the evening

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Jason Schatz and Christopher J. Kucharik

consequences of various modes of development, including local climate effects. Urban landscapes have distinct climates compared to their rural environs ( Arnfield 2003 ). The most widely studied element of the urban climate is temperature, which is typically described in terms of the urban heat island (UHI) effect. UHIs are classically defined as the difference between urban and rural background temperatures, which can be represented in a variety of ways ( Stewart and Oke 2012 ). UHIs have been observed

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Dan Li, Ting Sun, Maofeng Liu, Linlin Wang, and Zhiqiu Gao

1. Introduction Heat waves (HWs) are prolonged periods of high temperatures and they are among the deadliest natural disasters ( Anderson and Bell 2009 , 2011 ; D’Ippoliti et al. 2010 ; Kovats and Hajat 2008 ; Petkova et al. 2014 ). Cities are arguably more vulnerable to HWs than rural areas because of the background urban heat island (UHI) effect; that is, cities are typically hotter than rural areas even under non-HW conditions ( Arnfield 2003 ; Grimmond 2007 ; Oke 1982 ). An important

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Matthew D. Eastin, Matthew Baber, Adrienne Boucher, Sofia Di Bari, Ryan Hubler, Brandy Stimac-Spalding, and Thomas Winesett

partitioning of latent and sensible heat fluxes. Moreover, recent numerical simulations have demonstrated that climate change induced by land-cover/land-use (LULC) change through urbanization may be as important as greenhouse gas–induced climate change at regional scales ( Mahmood et al. 2014 ; Georgescu 2015 ). One of the most widely studied aspects of urban climate change is the urban heat island (UHI), whereby surface (or canopy layer) temperatures in urban areas are up to 10°C warmer than the

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Bin Zhou, Dirk Lauwaet, Hans Hooyberghs, Koen De Ridder, Jürgen P. Kropp, and Diego Rybski

1. Introduction As climate change and urbanization globally continue, studies addressing their reciprocal impacts are gaining growing importance ( Kalnay and Cai 2003 ; Parker 2010 ; UN-HABITAT 2011 ). The urban heat island (UHI) effect, observed as an elevated temperature of urban areas relative to rural ones, relates to both challenges and is a persistent focus of urban climate and environmental studies ( Arnfield 2003 ; Stewart and Oke 2012 ). The UHI effect emerges through 1) land

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