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Bradfield Lyon

island effects) on the upward trend in heat waves is a consideration here. For the period 1960–90, Hughes and Balling (1996) suggested that upward (downward) trends in the mean daily temperature (diurnal temperature range) were generally greater for the 5 urban versus 19 nonurban stations they examined for South Africa. However, their examination of Tx trends did not show similar differences with location. Using daily station data for South Africa extending through 2003, Kruger and Shongwe (2004

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Kerry H. Cook and Edward K. Vizy

) indicates that changes in the westward position–extension of the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) is the primary cause of the semidiurnal signal in the CLLJ acceleration region. Analysis on a large domain, with finer temporal resolution, may be needed to identify the cause of these changes, or these changes may be associated with a semidiurnal cycle of precipitation over the mountainous islands of the Greater Antilles that is not represented well in the NARR. The hours of positive zonal

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Kirsten L. Findell and Thomas L. Delworth

water and saturated land surfaces, R net is net radiation at the surface, T a is air temperature, ρ w is the mass density of water, λ υ is the latent heat of vaporization, γ is the psychrometric constant, and s ( T a ) is the slope of the relation between saturation vapor pressure ( e sat ) and air temperature. Campbell and Norman (1998) show that a convenient, empirical equation for computing the saturation vapor pressure from temperature is the Tetens formula: where the constants a

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