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Kate Snow, Andrew McC. Hogg, Bernadette M. Sloyan, and Stephanie M. Downes

1. Introduction Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is one of the densest and most voluminous water masses of the global ocean. It forms the lower limb of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and plays an important role in transporting carbon, heat, and freshwater sequestered from the atmosphere to the deep ocean ( Johnson 2008 ; Kuhlbrodt et al. 2007 ; Ríos et al. 2012 ; Purkey and Johnson 2013 ). AABW source water is formed initially through surface buoyancy losses via cooling and brine

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Michael Goss, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

constructively or destructively interfere with the climatological stationary wave, with the resulting amplification or deamplification of the extratropical flow resulting in more or less heat and moisture (which can change the downward IR) transport into the Arctic, leading to changes in both the Arctic SAT and Arctic sea ice ( Henderson et al. 2014 ; Lee 2014 ; Park et al. 2015 ). Several recent studies ( Cohen et al. 2007 , 2014 ) have shown a link between snow cover anomalies over Eurasia and planetary

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Xiaojun Yuan, Michael R. Kaplan, and Mark A. Cane

to tropical SST changes ( Chen et al. 1996 ; Bals-Elsholz et al. 2001 ); 3) anomalous mean meridional and zonal circulations and associated heat fluxes ( Carleton and Whalley 1988 ; Cullather et al. 1996 ; Kreutz et al. 2000 ; Liu et al. 2002 ; Seager et al. 2003 ; Liu et al. 2004 ; Yuan 2004 ); and 4) altered transient eddy activity ( Carleton and Carpenter 1990 ; Carleton and Fitch 1993 ; Sinclair et al. 1997 ; Carleton and Song 2000 ). Through the atmospheric connection, ENSO events

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Bradley P. Goodwin, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Aaron B. Wilson, Stacy E. Porter, and M. Roxana Sierra-Hernandez

except austral summer ( Jones et al. 2009 ). A recently reconstructed SAM index ( Abram et al. 2014a , b ) uses a suite of proxy records from South America and Antarctica plus a new ice core–derived temperature record [inferred from deuterium ( δ D)] recovered in 2008 from James Ross Island ( Fig. 1 ) on the eastern side of the northern tip of the AP. Finally, the much shorter SAM record from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ( Mo 2000 ; NOAA 2000 ) is included for

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