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Franklin R. Robertson and Jason B. Roberts

out that this fact, coupled with the availability in the dataset of the corrections made to the evolving state variables (temperature, wind, and humidity), enables insights to be gleaned regarding model physics biases. The vast majority of investigations of ISV, particularly in models, have focused on the mechanisms governing horizontal and vertical structure, phase speed, and growth rate. Our investigation takes a different tack and addresses the rectification of various fluxes on the net heat

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Siegfried Schubert, Hailan Wang, and Max Suarez

et al. 2000 ). Nevertheless, the summer season does exhibit substantial variability on monthly time scales including periods of extreme heat and flooding that at times appear to develop as part of continental- or even planetary-scale circulation changes (e.g., Carril et al. 2007 ). The nature of such large-scale summer circulation changes, including the mechanisms that act to maintain them on time scales far longer than those of local weather processes, is as yet unclear. One potentially

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Man-Li C. Wu, Oreste Reale, and Siegfried D. Schubert

south of the AEJ at about 700 hPa and a drier, lower-elevation conversion to the north, dominated by baroclinic processes. Similar results were obtained by Albignat and Reed (1980) , who emphasized the baroclinic tilt of the waves produced to the north of the AEJ and the dominance of latent heat release for the waves produced south of the AEJ. Nitta and Takayabu (1985) and Reed et al. (1988) presented evidence of two different (although coupled) tracks for AEWs over North Africa (to the north

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Michele M. Rienecker, Max J. Suarez, Ronald Gelaro, Ricardo Todling, Julio Bacmeister, Emily Liu, Michael G. Bosilovich, Siegfried D. Schubert, Lawrence Takacs, Gi-Kong Kim, Stephen Bloom, Junye Chen, Douglas Collins, Austin Conaty, Arlindo da Silva, Wei Gu, Joanna Joiner, Randal D. Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Andrea Molod, Tommy Owens, Steven Pawson, Philip Pegion, Christopher R. Redder, Rolf Reichle, Franklin R. Robertson, Albert G. Ruddick, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Jack Woollen

some insights into the system’s performance. Other papers in the series analyze various aspects of the scientific quality of MERRA. For example, Bosilovich et al. (2011) evaluate MERRA from an energy and water budget perspective; Robertson et al. (2011) analyze the effects of the changing observing system on MERRA’s energy and water fluxes; Schubert et al. (2011) highlight the usefulness of MERRA for characterizing the nature and forcing of short-term climate extremes, such as heat waves and

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