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R. E. Carbone and J. D. Tuttle

acts as an elevated heat source. They showed that convection scaled upward from simple cumulonimbus over the mountains to meso- β - and meso- α -scale systems over the plains, propagating eastward for hours. Gravity wave modes constrained by background slope flow circulations were shown to be central to the underlying dynamics. More recently, various global and regional studies (e.g., Davis et al. 2003 ; Wang et al. 2004 , 2005 ; Ahijevych et al. 2004 ; Tuttle and Davis 2006 ; Parker and

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Alex C. Ruane and John O. Roads

model’s atmosphere is forced by weekly mean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) that are linearly interpolated into mean daily values, resulting in diurnally constant SSTs. This assumption stems from the fact that the open-ocean surface’s large heat capacity drastically diminishes the daily range of surface temperature compared to land. Diurnally constant SSTs therefore have only a small impact on the diurnal magnitude of turbulent energy fluxes, but the phases are strongly affected ( RR07a ). b. Water

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Tianjun Zhou, Rucong Yu, Haoming Chen, Aiguo Dai, and Yang Pan

. 2007 ), these precipitation characteristics significantly modulate soil moisture, runoff, evaporation, and sensible heat flux over land ( Qian et al. 2006 ). They also provide an excellent test bed for validating cumulus and other parameterizations in numerical weather and climate models, which still have large deficiencies in simulating the diurnal timing, frequency, and intensity of precipitation (e.g., Dai et al. 1999 ; Lin et al. 2000 ; Yang and Slingo 2001 ; Betts and Jakob 2002 ; Dai and

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