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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

Tasman Sea or possibly farther east. Therefore, neither the energy budget nor that mass budget is closed for each ocean alone, and the amount of heat transported depends upon the reference value. Godfrey (1996) provided a nice summary of the state of knowledge of the ITF based upon fragmentary data and highlighted the role of the warm volume transport between the various Indonesian islands that amounted to a net heat transport, updated by Sprintall et al. (2014) and Gordon et al. (2019) . The

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Christopher M. Thomas, Bo Dong, and Keith Haines

1. Introduction Vertical and horizontal energy flows between Earth’s surface, atmosphere, and space play a fundamental role in establishing the large-scale atmosphere and ocean circulation patterns driving weather and climate. The water cycle is closely coupled to these energy flows due to the exchanges of latent heat that occur during evaporation/transpiration and precipitation. A wide variety of Earth observation (EO) datasets are now available, enabling different vertical components of the

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Yun Hang, Alexander V. Matus, and Zhien Wang

radiative heat exchanges between the atmosphere, land surface, and the ocean ( Zhang et al. 1995 ; Bony et al. 1997 ; Wild et al. 2013 ). In fact, more than 90% of the excess energy in the climate system due to increased greenhouse gas concentrations is absorbed at the surface where clouds play a critical role in modulating radiative fluxes ( Trenberth et al. 2009 , 2014 ). However, current estimates of surface energy budget are poorly resolved because passive sensors lack the ability to penetrate

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