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Kexin Zhang, Mitchell D. Goldberg, Fengying Sun, Lihang Zhou, Walter W. Wolf, Changyi Tan, Nicholas R. Nalli, and Quanhua Liu

and Arkin 1992 ; Chiodi and Harrison 2010 ; Xie and Arkin 1996 ). The trends of OLR have been used to study climate feedbacks and processes (e.g., Chu and Wang 1997 ; Susskind et al. 2012 ). Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) ( Wielicki et al. 1996 ) was designed to extend the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data record of TOA longwave (LW) and shortwave (SW) fluxes. Since the infrared (IR) radiance measured in space by radiometers and spectrometers is part of the

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E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, I. Barker-Snook, R. Niclòs, V. Garcia Santos, P. J. Minnett, F. M. Göttsche, L. Poutier, N. Morgan, T. Nightingale, W. Wimmer, J. Høyer, K. Zhang, M. Yang, L. Guan, M. Arbelo, and C. J. Donlon

the radiation temperature scales of the PTB and the NPL in the temperature range from −57 °C to 50 °C . Meas. Sci. Technol. , 24 , 065002 , . 10.1088/0957-0233/24/6/065002 Legrand , M. , C. Pietras , G. Brogniez , M. Haeffelin , N. K. Abuhassan , and M. Sicard , 2000 : A high-accuracy multiwavelength radiometer for in situ measurements in the thermal infrared. Part I: Characterization of the instrument . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol

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Laurent Makké, Luc Musson-Genon, Bertrand Carissimo, Pierre Plion, Maya Milliez, and Alexandre Douce

1. Introduction Infrared radiation (IR) is a physical process that plays a prominent role in atmospheric physics—especially through interaction with clouds. It is the most important physical phenomenon that drives radiation fog formation ( Davis 1994 ). To study atmospheric radiation, the question arises whether to adopt a 1D, 2D, or 3D approach to compute radiative transfer (RT). Many sophisticated treatments of the radiative transfer equation (RTE)—Monte Carlo method (MCM) ( Fleck 1961 ) for

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Ming-Dah Chou, Jack Chung-Chieh Yu, Wei-Liang Lee, Chein-Jung Shiu, Kyu-Tae Lee, Il-Sung Zo, Joon-Bum Jee, and Bu-Yo Kim

091iD03p04047 Chou , M.-D. , and K.-T. Lee , 2005 : A parameterization of the effective layer emission for infrared radiation calculations . J. Atmos. Sci. , 62 , 531 – 541 , . 10.1175/JAS-3379.1 Chou , M.-D. , M. J. Suarez , C. H. Ho , M. M. H. Yan , and K. T. Lee , 1998 : Parameterizations for cloud overlapping and shortwave single-scattering properties for use in general circulation and cloud ensemble models . J. Climate , 11 , 202

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Anders V. Lindfors, Ian A. Mackenzie, Simon F. B. Tett, and Lei Shi

1. Introduction The High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) instruments on board National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites have sampled the earth’s atmosphere and surface since late 1978. HIRS is a cross-track scanning radiometer that measures brightness temperatures (radiances) in 19 infrared channels, with one additional channel in the visible. It was originally developed for weather forecasting, providing information on atmospheric temperature

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Quanhua Liu, Changyong Cao, and Fuzhong Weng

). Microwave water emissivity can be calculated from surface temperature, wind vector, and salinity ( Liu et al. 2011 ). The infrared water bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model is used for the CRTM direct reflectance to compute reflected solar radiation ( Sayer et al. 2010 ). Using UV and visible spectral refractive indices of water, the BRDF model in the CRTM is also used for UV and visible measurements over water. The BRDF model is described by Fresnel reflection coefficients for

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Tingting Gong and Dehai Luo

attracted a great attention ( Fang and Wallace 1994 ; Sorteberg and Kvingedal 2006 ; Francis and Hunter 2006 ; D. S. Park et al. 2015 ; H. S. Park et al. 2015 ; Sorokina et al. 2016 ). In recent years, several mechanisms have been proposed to account for the cause of the winter Arctic sea ice decline ( Francis et al. 2005 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010 ; Screen et al. 2010 ; Cavalieri and Parkinson 2012 ). For example, the increased downward infrared radiation (IR) ( D. S. Park et al. 2015 ; H. S

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John L. Gergen

DECEMBER 1957JOHN L..'GERGEN495ATMOSPHERIC INFRARED RADIATION OVER MINNEAPOLIS TO 30 MILLIBARS By John L. Gergen University of Minnesota'(Original manuscript received 19 January 1957 ; revised manuscript received 2 April 1957)ABSTRACTThis paper presents some of the conclusions from the results of about 300 Black Ball flights in which thetotal atmospheric infrared radiation is measured in terms of an equivalent radiation temperature. The datapresented include

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P. Jonathan Gero and David D. Turner

. Furthermore, this work lays the foundation for the use of global infrared radiance measurements from satellite instruments to ascertain global climate trends and test general circulation models. Acknowledgments The data used in this analysis were obtained from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Climate and Environmental Sciences Division. This work was supported by NASA Grant

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J. Li, C. L. Curry, Z. Sun, and F. Zhang

promise in simulating atmospheric radiation more accurately and efficiently. However, there are still unresolved issues surrounding gaseous transmission in climate models. In this work we focus on two of these unresolved problems. The first is the overlapping of solar and infrared spectra. In almost all radiation models the shortwave and longwave portions of atmospheric radiation are treated separately due to the different transfer properties within each wavelength range. Usually the solar (shortwave

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