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G. J. Bell and M. C. Wong

2158 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VoLu~4- 109The Near-Infrared Radiation Received by Satellites from Clouds G. J. BELL~ AND M. C. WONGRoyal Observatory, Hong Kong(Manuscript received 30 October 1980, in final form 2 April 1981)ABSTRACT On satellite images in the near-infrared 3.7/~m atmospheric window some low clouds appear warmerthan the sea. A simple analysis of the radiation balance of elements of

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Anthony R. Hansen and Richard L. Nagle

1370 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 112Estimates of the Generation of Available Potential Energy by Infrared Radiation ANTHONY R. HANSENt AND RICHARD L. NAGLEDepartment of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511(Manuscript received 23 December 1983, in final form 20 April 1984)ABSTRACT Data from the Nationai Meteorological Center and net outgoing infrared radiation (IR) data

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R. KOFFLER, A. G. DeCOTIIS, and P. KRISHNA RAO

UDC 551.W1.776551.576.2/.1:551.SO7.352.2:551.521.14A Procedure for Estimating Cloud Amount and HeightFrom Satellite Infrared Radiation DataR. KOFFLER, A. G. DeCOTIIS, and P. KRISHNA RAO-National EnvironmentalSatellite Service, NOAA, Suitland, Md.ABgRAC1-A simple objective technique is presented data over the United States show good agreement withthat integrates satcllite-meamred infrared radiation temp- cloud observations obtained by surface observers anderatures with the National

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W. L. SMITH, P. K. RAO, R. KOFFLER, and W. R. CURTIS

604MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEWVol. 98, No. 8UDC 551.526.6:551.46.@35:551.507.362.2:551.521.18THE DETERMINATION OF SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATUREFROM SATELLITE HIGH RESOLUTION INFRARED WINDOW RADIATION MEASUREMENTSW. L. SMITH, P. K. RAO, R. KOFFLER, and W. R. CURTISNational Environmental Satellite Center, ESSA, Washington, D.C.ABSTRACTA statistical histogram method is developed to objectively determine sea-surface temperature from satellite highresolution window radiation measurements. The method involves

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M. Carrier, X. Zou, and William M. Lapenta

1. Introduction Infrared radiances are a very useful source of information for atmospheric data assimilation. Data obtained from infrared satellites, especially hyperspectral sounders such as the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), provide valuable information regarding the atmospheric thermodynamic state at superior vertical resolution ( Pagano et al. 2002 ). Much work has been done to directly utilize radiance data in the current numerical weather prediction (NWP) environment via variational

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T. Koyama, T. Vukicevic, M. Sengupta, T. Vonder Haar, and A. S. Jones

radiative transfer (RT) models depending on the radiation source. The two RT models used are the spherical harmonic discrete ordinate method (SHDOM; Evans 1998 ) for visible wavelengths and a delta-Eddington two-stream approach (e.g., Deeter and Evans 1998 ) for the infrared. It should be noted that both the models account for multiple scattering. Compared with other RT models available for visible computations, SHDOM is more accurate and can accommodate complicated scattering phase functions within

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MELVIN WEINSTEIN and VERNER E. SUOMI

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCELUTHERH. HODGES, SecretaryWEATHER BUREAUF. W. REICHELDERFER, ChiefMONTHLY WEATHER REVIEWJAMES E. CASKEY, JR., EditorVolume 89, Numbsr 11 Washington, D.C. November 1961ANALYSIS OF SATELLITE INFRARED RADIATION MEASUREMENTS ONA SYNOPTIC SCALE 1*2MELVIN WEINSTEIN, LT. COL., USAF 3Air Weather ServiceandVERNER E. SUOMIUniversity of Wisconsin, Madman, Wis.[Manuscript received May 22. 1961; revlsed September 12, 19611ABSTRACTLong-wave radiation loss maps, based on Explorer 1

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Thomas Pangaud, Nadia Fourrie, Vincent Guidard, Mohamed Dahoui, and Florence Rabier

1. Introduction The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board the Aqua satellite ( Aumann et al. 2003 ) belongs to a new generation of advanced satellite sounding instruments that provide information about atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles with a spectral resolution far exceeding that of previous sounders such as the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS). The Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) on board the MetOp satellite ( Cayla 2001 ) with a

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ROBERT C. LO and DONALD R. JOHNSON

Monthlv Weather Review"- - """"VOLUME 99, NUMBER 8 AUGUST 1971UDC 551.576.2:551.507.3.2:551.521.32AN INVESTIGATION OF CLOUD DISTRIBUTIONFROM SATELLITE INFRARED RADIATION DATA ROBERT C. LO and DONALD R. JOHNSONDepartment of Meteorology, The University of Wisconsin, Madison Wis.A physical-statistical model using Nimbus I1 MRIR (medium resolution infrared) radiometer channel 2 (10-11 pm)data is formed to estimate cloud cover. In the model, cloud cover is estimated from the probability

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WALTER M. ELSASSER

MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW Editor, EDGAR W. WOOLARD VOL. 69, No. 1 W. B. No. 1317 JANUARY 1941 CLOBBD MAR. 3, 1941 IBBIJED APRIL 21, 1941 A HEAT RADIATION TELESCOPE AND THE MEASUREMENT OF THE INFRARED EMISSION OF THE ATMOSPHERE By WALTER hl. ELSASSER \[California Institute of Technulogy and 11. S. Weather Bureau, November lMO\] 1. Historical note.-The instruments which have been constructed to measure sky radiation are of two types. First, there are devices which measure Lhe tota.1 radiation coming

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