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Zhixiao Zhang, Adam Varble, Zhe Feng, Joseph Hardin, and Edward Zipser

.25° grid spacing is used to evaluate simulated seasonal total precipitation because of its advantageous estimation at longer time scales. The 30-min TOA infrared brightness temperature (IR T b ) from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) merged infrared (MERG-IR) 4-km product coupled with precipitation from IMERG is used to identify observed MCSs. The IR T b dataset is regridded to match the 10-km IMERG dataset to facilitate the analysis. The WRF outgoing longwave flux is

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T. Connor Nelson, James Marquis, Adam Varble, and Katja Friedrich

. 1997 ) and six mobile balloon radiosonde platforms ( Schumacher 2019 ; Center for Severe Weather Research 2019 ). For missions occurring in the Córdoba province, mobile instrumentation was deployed in coordination with fixed-site instruments provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, including two fixed radiosonde sites [launching at variable frequency between 3 and 12 h; ( Holdridge et al. 2018 )] and a scanning C-band precipitation radar

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Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, James N. Marquis, Matthew R. Kumjian, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Maxwell A. Grover, Paul Robinson, and Deanna A. Hence

Electrification, Lightning, And Mesoscale/microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) field program, funded primarily by the National Science Foundation ( Nesbitt et al. 2016 ), and the complementary Clouds, Aerosols, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) field program funded by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE-ARM) program ( https://www.arm.gov/publications/programdocs/doe-sc-arm-19-028.pdf ). The detailed justification for RELAMPAGO-CACTI, as well as

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James N. Marquis, Adam C. Varble, Paul Robinson, T. Connor Nelson, and Katja Friedrich

(1315–1415 local time) (e.g., Fig. 1a ). At least five precipitation cores reached a maximum C-band radar reflectivity greater than 50 dB Z at low levels and persisted for a duration between 1 and 2.5 h. A mesoscale radiosonde network consisted of hourly launches between 1300 and 1900 UTC from six mobile facilities ( Schumacher 2019 ; Wurman and Kosiba 2021a ) and every three hours from the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) instrument site

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