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Zhixiao Zhang, Adam Varble, Zhe Feng, Joseph Hardin, and Edward Zipser

.25° grid spacing is used to evaluate simulated seasonal total precipitation because of its advantageous estimation at longer time scales. The 30-min TOA infrared brightness temperature (IR T b ) from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) merged infrared (MERG-IR) 4-km product coupled with precipitation from IMERG is used to identify observed MCSs. The IR T b dataset is regridded to match the 10-km IMERG dataset to facilitate the analysis. The WRF outgoing longwave flux is

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Itinderjot Singh, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Christopher A. Davis

Fig. 2b . Two groups of simulations using this modified thermodynamic profile were conducted, all with the same model setup as described in the previous section. All simulations in the first group include the diurnal cycle, i.e., time-varying incoming solar radiation (R) and surface heat and moisture fluxes as well as background flow (W). The first simulation in this group is initialized using the modified IOP4 thermodynamic profile and the observed wind field; this simulation is the control

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Jeremiah O. Piersante, Russ. S. Schumacher, and Kristen L. Rasmussen

months were included to highlight how precipitation forecast skill is lowest during the warm season; the change in error with season is discussed throughout the paper. All members were run via the Advanced Research version of the Weather and Forecasting (WRF) Model ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ) version 3.7.1 with RRTMG radiation ( Iacono et al. 2008 ), Noah land surface ( Tewari et al. 2004 ), 43 vertical levels, a 90-s time step, and GFS initial/lateral boundary conditions (except for one that uses GEFS

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Gimena Casaretto, Maria Eugenia Dillon, Paola Salio, Yanina García Skabar, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Russ S. Schumacher, Carlos Marcelo García, and Carlos Catalini

 al. 2008 ), WRF single-moment 6-class (WSM6; Hong et al. 2006 ), and Morrison double-moment scheme (MDMS; Morrison et al. 2009 ). Thompson and MDMS are double-moment schemes for ice, snow, rain, and graupel. WRFSMN uses WSM6, which employs a single moment representation for all species. Regarding the radiation parameterizations used, the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) scheme has calculations for multiple bands and microphysics species, while the RRTMG ( Iacono et

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Adam C. Varble, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola Salio, Joseph C. Hardin, Nitin Bharadwaj, Paloma Borque, Paul J. DeMott, Zhe Feng, Thomas C. J. Hill, James N. Marquis, Alyssa Matthews, Fan Mei, Rusen Öktem, Vagner Castro, Lexie Goldberger, Alexis Hunzinger, Kevin R. Barry, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Greg M. McFarquhar, Lynn A. McMurdie, Mikhail Pekour, Heath Powers, David M. Romps, Celeste Saulo, Beat Schmid, Jason M. Tomlinson, Susan C. van den Heever, Alla Zelenyuk, Zhixiao Zhang, and Edward J. Zipser

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) field campaign was recently completed over a 7-month period from October 2018 through April 2019 in the Sierras de Córdoba (SDC) range of central Argentina. A primary goal was to use the high frequency of orographically initiated convective clouds to comprehensively study the complex interactions between meteorology, aerosols, complex terrain, and convective

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James N. Marquis, Adam C. Varble, Paul Robinson, T. Connor Nelson, and Katja Friedrich

(1315–1415 local time) (e.g., Fig. 1a ). At least five precipitation cores reached a maximum C-band radar reflectivity greater than 50 dB Z at low levels and persisted for a duration between 1 and 2.5 h. A mesoscale radiosonde network consisted of hourly launches between 1300 and 1900 UTC from six mobile facilities ( Schumacher 2019 ; Wurman and Kosiba 2021a ) and every three hours from the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) instrument site

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Sujan Pal, Francina Dominguez, María Eugenia Dillon, Javier Alvarez, Carlos Marcelo Garcia, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and David Gochis

) Remote sensing products (IMERG) The Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG) products provide quasi-global (60°N–60°S) precipitation estimates passive microwave (PMW) and infrared (IR) satellites of the GPM constellation. These are level-3, 30-min gridded precipitation products at 0.1° × 0.1°, and calibrated by gauge analysis of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC; Schneider et al. 2011 ). The IMERG products are available in the form of near

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T. Connor Nelson, James Marquis, Adam Varble, and Katja Friedrich

. 1997 ) and six mobile balloon radiosonde platforms ( Schumacher 2019 ; Center for Severe Weather Research 2019 ). For missions occurring in the Córdoba province, mobile instrumentation was deployed in coordination with fixed-site instruments provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, including two fixed radiosonde sites [launching at variable frequency between 3 and 12 h; ( Holdridge et al. 2018 )] and a scanning C-band precipitation radar

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