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Thomas M. Hamill and Jeffrey S. Whitaker

. The EnSRF assimilations were started at 0000 UTC 1 December 2007 and ended at 0000 UTC 10 January 2008. As in Whitaker et al. (2008) , the NCEP GSI system was used for the forward operator calculation, and all conventional, satellite wind, and global positioning system radio-occultation data are assimilated, as well as Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) radiances, and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet instrument (SBUV) ozone retrievals

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Loïk Berre and Gérald Desroziers

estimates, for channel 7 of the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) at 0000 UTC 28 August 2006. Each plotted value at location i x is the product of the local increment value, namely, (𝗛 δ x )( i x ), with the corresponding local innovation value, namely, ( δ y )( i x ). This local product (𝗛 δ x )( i x ) × ( δ y )( i x ) is an estimate of the background error variance at location i x , according to Eq. (23) (including, in particular, an assumption that 𝗛 δ x and δ y are

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