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Irving F. Hand


Immediately before and during the passage of a smoke cloud from forest fires, simultaneous measurements were made of total normal incidence solar radiation and that portion of the solar spectrum longer than 0.7μ. Calculations made of the relative amount of radiation that should be received for both the total and limited components checked closely with the ratios between measurements with a smoke-free atmosphere but showed variance with ratios obtained in the presence of smoke. The range between the maximum and minimum values of total radiation during a ten-minute period in the presence of smoke was 2.3 times as great as the range between the maximum and minimum values of infrared radiation; from which we conclude, as theory implies, that long-wave radiation passes much more freely through an atmosphere containing particles slightly less than one micron in diameter than does the shorter, or visible and ultraviolet radiation.

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Brian J. Drouin, James Anheuser, Meredith Grames, David S. Henderson, Xianglei Huang, Brian H. Kahn, Jennifer E. Kay, Boon H. Lim, Marian Mateling, Aronne Merrelli, Nathaniel B. Miller, Sharmila Padmanabhan, Colten Peterson, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, Mary L. White, and Yan Xie

significant fraction of Earth’s emission spectrum. The far-infrared observation gap At terrestrial temperatures, more than 99% of thermal emission occurs at wavelengths between 4 and 100 μ m. Given the central role thermal fluxes play in the climate and their strong sensitivity to atmospheric composition and clouds, radiation at midinfrared (MIR) wavelengths (4–15 μ m) has been extensively measured from the ground, aircraft, and throughout the satellite era ( Ackerman et al. 2019 ). This is not the case

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W. Paul Menzel, Timothy J. Schmit, Peng Zhang, and Jun Li

ground-based observations of the atmospheric state globally. Even for areas where traditional observations are relatively dense, it is hard to satisfy the spatial and temporal requirements of mesoscale weather forecasts. In addition, information on atmospheric composition such as atmospheric ozone, dust, methane, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide are often not measured in ground-based observation systems. The concept of using satellite infrared (IR) radiation measurements to retrieve atmospheric

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Laura D. Riihimaki, Connor Flynn, Allison McComiskey, Dan Lubin, Yann Blanchard, J. Christine Chiu, Graham Feingold, Daniel R. Feldman, Jake J. Gristey, Christian Herrera, Gary Hodges, Evgueni Kassianov, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Alexander Marshak, Joseph J. Michalsky, Peter Pilewskie, Sebastian Schmidt, Ryan C. Scott, Yolanda Shea, Kurtis Thome, Richard Wagener, and Bruce Wielicki

operated but starting in 2003 (and with an expansion in 2010) a variety of shortwave spectrometers have been deployed that provide routine hyperspectral measurements. A rich dataset of both multispectral and hyperspectral irradiance and radiance measurements now exists in the ARM data archive (e.g., Figs. 2 and 3 ; ) spanning the ultraviolet, visible, and SW near-infrared wavelengths ( Table 1 ) with the unique potential to better understand cloud, aerosol, and radiation

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Jun Yang, Zhiqing Zhang, Caiying Wei, Feng Lu, and Qiang Guo

offer full-disc coverage every 15 min or better (compared to 30 min of FY-2) and the option for more rapid regional and mesoscale observation modes. The Advanced Geosynchronous Radiation Imager (AGRI) has 14 spectral bands (increased from the five bands of FY-2) that are quantized with 12 bits per pixel (up from 10 bits for FY-2) and sampled at 1 km at nadir in the visible (VIS), 2 km in the near-infrared (NIR), and 4 km in the remaining IR spectral bands (compared with 1.25 km for VIS, no NIR, and

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Bruce A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, Sr. W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong

collaborating with two mission proposal groups in Europe: the Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio Studies (TRUTHS) mission ( Fox et al. 2011 ) for high-accuracy solar reflected spectra and the Far Infrared Outgoing Radiation Understanding and Monitoring (FORUM) mission for high-accuracy thermal infrared spectra. While the CLARREO team is the farthest along in development at this time, future collaboration will be key to achieving the accuracy for global climate change data that the world

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Graeme Stephens, David Winker, Jacques Pelon, Charles Trepte, Deborah Vane, Cheryl Yuhas, Tristan L’Ecuyer, and Matthew Lebsock

in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 96 , 1311 – 1332 , . 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00227.1 Kahn , B. J. , and Coauthors , 2014 : The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder version 6 cloud products . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 14 , 399 – 426 , . 10.5194/acp-14-399-2014 Kay , J. E. , C. Wall , V. Yettella , B. Medeiros , C. Hannay , P. Caldwell

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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G.-J. van Zadelhoff

EarthCARE, a joint ESA–JAXA satellite to be launched in 2018, will provide global profiles of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation properties together with derived radiative fluxes and heating rates. The Earth Clouds, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) satellite is a joint mission by the European Space and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agencies scheduled for launch in 2018. Data from its cloud profiling radar, with Doppler capability, high-spectral-resolution lidar, and multispectral

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D. D. Turner and E. J. Mlawer

Accurately accounting for radiative energy balance between the incoming solar and the outgoing infrared radiative fluxes is very important in modeling the Earth's climate. Water vapor absorption plays a critical role in the radiative heating rate profile in the midtroposphere by strongly absorbing both infrared and solar radiation in several absorption bands throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. One of the most important of these absorption bands is in the far-infrared portion of the spectrum, where the far-infrared is defined here to be wavelengths longer than 15 microns. A large fraction (~40%) of the outgoing infrared flux is emitted by water vapor in the far-infrared. Errors in the radiative transfer models associated with the far-infrared and other strong water vapor absorption bands will therefore affect the calculation of the planet's total outgoing radiative flux and its vertical distribution of the radiant energy; these errors may result in inaccurate modeling of the general circulation of the planet.

A set of field experiments, called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns (RHUBC), has been conducted as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The RHUBC campaigns deployed spectrally resolved far-infrared spectrometers alongside other ARM observations in extremely dry environments to provide a robust and complete dataset that allows radiative transfer models to be evaluated in the far-infrared and other spectral regions where water vapor absorbs strongly. RHUBC I was conducted in February–March 2007 in Barrow, Alaska, and RHUBC II was conducted in August–October 2009 in the Atacama Desert region of Chile at an altitude of 5.3 km. The motivation for and initial results from these experiments are described, as well as the implications for global climate models.

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K. Dieter Klaes, Marc Cohen, Yves Buhler, Peter Schlüssel, Rosemary Munro, Juha-Pekka Luntama, Axel von Engeln, Eoin Ó Clérigh, Hans Bonekamp, Jörg Ackermann, and Johannes Schmetz

The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) Polar System is the European contribution to the European–U.S. operational polar meteorological satellite system (Initial Joint Polar System). It serves the midmorning (a.m.) orbit 0930 Local Solar Time (LST) descending node. The EUMETSAT satellites of this new polar system are the Meteorological Operational Satellite (Metop) satellites, jointly developed with ESA. Three Metop satellites are foreseen for at least 14 years of operation from 2006 onward and will support operational meteorology and climate monitoring.

The Metop Programme includes the development of some instruments, such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, Advanced Scatterometer, and the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding, which are advanced instruments of recent successful research missions. Core components of the Metop payload, common with the payload on the U.S. satellites, are the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and the Advanced Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS) package, composed of the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A), and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS). They provide continuity to the NOAA-K, -L, -M satellite series (in orbit known as NOAA-15, -16 and -17). MHS is a EUMETSAT development and replaces the AMSU-B instrument in the ATOVS suite. The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument, developed by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, provides hyperspectral resolution infrared sounding capabilities and represents new technology in operational satellite remote sensing.

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