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Jainn J. Shi, Scott A. Braun, Zhining Tao, and Toshihisa Matsui

infrared radiation parameterization for atmospheric studies. NASA Tech. Memo. NASA/TM-2001-104606, Vol. 19, 54 pp., . Cotton , W. R. , H. Zhang , G. M. McFarquhar , and S. M. Saleeby , 2007 : Should we consider polluting hurricanes to reduce their intensity? J. Weather Mod. , 39 , 70 – 73 . Cotton , W. R. , G. M. Krall , and G. G. Carrió , 2012 : Potential indirect effects of aerosol on tropical cyclone

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Charles N. Helms and Lance F. Bosart

, in the pre-Gabrielle disturbance on 4–5 September 2013. Fig . 1. (a) Profiles of relative humidity and co-moving wind observed by three dropsondes released at 1944 (black), 1954 (red), and 2114 UTC (blue) 4 Sep 2013 labeled as soundings A, B, and C, respectively. The dashed purple line indicates the average freezing level and the layer between the two horizontal brown lines indicates the dry air layer of interest. (b) The GOES-13 infrared satellite imagery at 2145 UTC 4 Sep 2013 and the

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E. P. Nowottnick, P. R. Colarco, S. A. Braun, D. O. Barahona, A. da Silva, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, and J. R. Spackman

SAL serves as a mechanism for increased atmospheric stability, which can be augmented by heating within the SAL dust layer by dust absorption of solar and infrared radiation, with dust thus acting to inhibit tropical cyclogenesis. Similarly, Reale et al. (2009 , 2011) found that dusty SAL intrusions into a developing tropical system increase atmospheric stability by inducing a heating dipole with warming aloft and cooling below due to absorption within the elevated dust layer. Evan et al

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Scott A. Braun, Paul A. Newman, and Gerald M. Heymsfield

-barb is 2.5 m s −1 ; flags are 25 m s −1 ) show storm-relative winds at the respective altitudes. Dropsonde locations account for dropsonde drift and storm motion, with positions adjusted to a reference time of 0900 UTC 12 Sep. Data superimposed on GOES infrared imagery (IR) at 0845 UTC and SSMI/S 91-GHz polarization-corrected temperature [color scale in (b)] at 0849 UTC 12 Sep. (d)–(f) As in (a)–(c), respectively, but for a reference time of 0032 UTC 15 Sep and superimposed on GOES IR imagery at 0045

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