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Richard L. Bankert, Jeremy E. Solbrig, Thomas F. Lee, and Steven D. Miller

1. Introduction Polar-orbiting satellite data have been available from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) for over 40 years. The Operational Linescan System (OLS), on board the DMSP satellites, is a two-channel radiometer with visible and infrared (IR) data sensors. A high-gain amplifier (photomultiplier tube) offers high sensitivity and a unique ability to image low levels of visible light ( Miller and Turner 2009 ; Isaacs and Barnes 1987 ). The OLS nighttime visible channel

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Miguel F. Piñeros, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, and J. Scott Tyo

satellites ( Dvorak 1975 ). In this technique, an analyst classifies the cloud scene types in visible and infrared satellite imagery and applies a set of rules to calculate the intensity estimate. The original Dvorak technique is subjective, is time intensive, and relies on the expertise of the analyst, but it is still used as the primary intensity forecasting tool in many tropical cyclone forecasting centers around the world (e.g., Velden et al. 1998 , 2006b ; Knaff et al. 2010 ). Velden et al

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Ming Liu, Jason E. Nachamkin, and Douglas L. Westphal

1. Introduction Solar and thermal infrared radiation is a fundamental mechanism for driving the energy exchange among air mass, clouds, aerosols, and land surface to maintain the thermal and dynamic systems in the atmosphere. The accurate prediction of atmospheric radiative processes, particularly cloud–radiation interaction, highly depends on the accurate calculation of radiative transfer fluxes (i.e., radiative transfer parameterizations). It has been well recognized that radiation modeling

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Wayne F. Feltz and John R. Mecikalski

thunderstorm event is explored. Using part of the array of five AERI instruments stationed across Oklahoma and Kansas as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, time series of vertical temperature and water vapor profiles, CAPE, and CIN are analyzed. These datasets provide a unique, real-time assessment of the preconvective atmosphere, not available from conventional sounding observations, which are taken only at 0000 and 1200 UTC synoptic times (or in

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Tom H. Zapotocny, James A. Jung, John F. Le Marshall, and Russ E. Treadon

-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) data, geostationary satellite atmospheric motion vectors (GEO winds) data from both the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and the Japan Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS), and Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) surface wind data. The work in this manuscript is similar to observing system experiments (OSEs) conducted with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF

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Tom H. Zapotocny, W. Paul Menzel, James A. Jung, and James P. Nelson III

types producing the aggregate impacts of Part I . The nine component data types examined are 1) rawinsonde mass observations, 2) rawinsonde wind observations (raob), 3) mass, and 4) wind observations from the GOES satellites positioned on the eastern and western coasts of North America ( GOES-8 and GOES-10 during the time frame of this study, respectively), POES observations from the 5) High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), 6) the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU), and 7) the Advanced

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Thomas F. Lee, F. Joseph Turk, and Kim Richardson

-effect cloud along the eastern edge of Lake Michigan. The longwave infrared image ( Fig. 11 ) shows the low cloudiness over the region less distinctly. The uncorrected shortwave image ( Fig. 12 ) represents a combination of emitted terrestrial radiation and backscattered solar energy, complicating its correct interpretation. Black gray shades indicate cold, unreflecting ice cloud tops, as over Kentucky and New York State. However, other dark gray shades represent snowcover ( Allen et al. 1990 ), which is

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Thomas F. Lee, James R. Clark, and Steven D. Swadley

Images of integrated cloud liquid water derived from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) aboardthe Defense Meteorological Satellite Program polar-orbiting satellite are presented. Examples with infrared andvisible images and synoptic charts are shown for the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea for March 1992. The SSM/I images often show detailed, low-level cloud circulations not suggested by infrared satellite images. A prototypesystem for forecasting the potential for aircraft icing, which

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Keith M. Hines, Robert W. Grumbine, David H. Bromwich, and Richard I. Cullather

convection, large-scale precipitation, shallow convection, gravity wave drag, radiation with diurnal cycle and interaction with clouds, boundary layer physics, interactive surface hydrology, and horizontal and vertical diffusion ( Kanamitsu 1989 ; Kanamitsu et al. 1991 ). Recent changes in the NCEP analysis–forecast system listed in Caplan et al. (1997) include updated radiation every 3 h, inclusion of Arakawa–Schubert convection, and increased vertical resolution to 28 layers. All of these updates

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Jun Jiang, Wei Yan, Shuo Ma, Yangyang Jie, Xiarong Zhang, Shensen Hu, Lei Fan, and Linyu Xia

( Cermak et al. 2009 ; Chaurasia et al. 2011 ). In comparison, weather satellite data have the advantage of continuous spatial coverage while providing reliable near-real-time information on the spatiotemporal distribution of fog and low stratus ( Cermak and Bendix 2007 ; Cermak et al. 2009 ). Research on fog and low-stratus detection using satellite data has been carried out since the 1970s. As a result of the limitations of spectral channels on early infrared radiation detectors, most research

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