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Dayton G. Vincent

accompanyingcloud band are reviewed and discussed. The paper focuses on the following topics: location, structure, andcharacteristics of the SPCZ; theories and observations concerning its existence; the significance and scope ofthe SPCZ in global-scale circulation patterns; quasi-periodic changes in its location and strength; and synopficscale features within its regional influence (e.g., cyclones, subtropical jets). It concludes with some challengingproblems for the future.1. Introductory remarks The South

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Clifford Mass and Brigid Dotson

al. 1988 ; Burt and Mansfield 1988 ), the Burns’ Day Storm of 25 January 1990 ( McCallum 1990 ), the Christmas Eve Storm of 24 December 1997 ( Young and Grahame 1999 ), and the series of three storms that struck northern Europe in December 1999 ( Ulbrich et al. 2001 ). Browning 2004 , Browning and Field (2004) , and Clark et al. (2005) present evidence that a limited area of strong winds associated with evaporative cooling and descent (termed a sting jet) occurred during the October 1987

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Tammy M. Weckwerth and David B. Parsons

–150-km-long arcs in radar reflectivity) along a gust front were the preferred locations for surface convergence and for convective development. Deep convection occurred along the gust front only after interaction with the dryline and/or low-level jet. This outflow boundary first propagated as a density current and evolved toward an internal undular bore. Dual-Doppler radar analyses also showed waves generated atop the cold-air outflow (e.g., Mueller and Carbone 1987 ; Weckwerth and Wakimoto 1992

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Roland A. Madden and Paul R. Julian

August1962 with near zero precipitation in between. The lowlevel, northward-flowing wind over Kenya had corresponding fluctuations. Although there was some controversy over whether or not the Kenyan winds couldbe used to predict the Indian rainfall, Findlater (1969)argued that these same precipitation changes were inresponse to the changing Somali jet. The fluctuating822 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 1224~ffOIE4O8

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John Molinari and Michael Dudek

upper level jet streak and diabatic processes that influence the development of a low-level jet and secondary coastal cyclone. Mort. Wea. Rev.. 115, 2227-2261.Willoughby, H. E., H.-L. Jin, S. J. Lord, and J. M. Piotrowicz, 1984: Hurricane structure and evolution as simulated by an axisym metric, nonhydrostatic numerical model. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 1169-1186.Xu, K. M., 1991: The coupling of cumulus convection with large scale processes. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Atmospheric

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David M. Schultz

: The pressure jump line. J. Meteor. , 7 , 21 – 29 . Thompson , W. T. , and R. T. Williams , 1997 : Numerical simulations of maritime frontogenesis. J. Atmos. Sci. , 54 , 314 – 331 . Troup , A. J. , 1956 : An aerological study of the “meridional front” in western Australia. Aust. Meteor. Mag. , 14 , 1 – 22 . Uccellini , L. W. , 1980 : On the role of upper tropospheric jet streaks and leeside cyclogenesis in the development of low-level jets in the Great Plains. Mon. Wea

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David M. Schultz and Philip N. Schumacher

, 118–140. Bluestein, H. B., 1986: Fronts and jet streaks: A theoretical perspective. Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting, P. S. Ray, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 173–215. ——, 1993: Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology in Midlatitudes. Vol. 2, Observations and Theory of Weather Systems. Oxford University Press, 594 pp. Braun, S. A., and R. A. Houze Jr., 1996: The heat budget of a midlatitude squall line and implications for

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Paul M. Markowski

Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards, Geophys. Monogr., No. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 319–352 . Bluestein , H. B. , and A. L. Pazmany , 2000 : Observations of tornadoes and other convective phenomena with a mobile, 3-mm wavelength, Doppler radar. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 81 , 2939 – 2952 . Bluestein , H. B. , and S. G. Gaddy , 2001 : Airborne pseudo-dual-Doppler analysis of a rear-inflow jet and deep convergence zone within a supercell. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 129

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