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  • DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE/LASP: Processes, Dynamics, and Prediction of MJO Initiation x
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H. Bellenger, R. Wilson, J. L. Davison, J. P. Duvel, W. Xu, F. Lott, and M. Katsumata

-wavelength/higher-frequency waves are likely to be observed close to their source, whereas longer-wavelength/lower-frequency GWs can propagate great distance away from their sources (e.g., Hankinson et al. 2014a , b ). Over the central equatorial Indian Ocean, which lacks any significant orography, the most probable GW sources are convection and jet streams. Therefore, we anticipate an observable link between convective activity (both local and distant), GW characteristics, and turbulence. This study is based on radiosonde

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Michael S. Pritchard and Christopher S. Bretherton

vorticity anomalies causes a poleward shift of the midlatitude jets and decelerated upper-level flow. As α is decreased from unity, the reverse is true. Interestingly, upper-level equatorial superrotation decreases as α is increased from unity. This is opposite to the covariation of MJO amplitude and upper-level superrotation seen recently in aquaplanet sea surface temperature warming by Arnold et al. (2013) . Figure 15 shows that in the tropics the low-level wind response to increasing α from

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Ji-Hyun Oh, Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, Mitchell W. Moncrieff, Richard H. Johnson, and Paul Ciesielski

region, the mesoscale inflow jet brings westerly momentum downward, enhancing the surface westerlies. Numerical simulations by Lafore and Moncrieff (1989) showed that the strong midtropospheric inflow at the rear of mesoscale convective systems is driven by the horizontal pressure gradient arising from potential temperature gradients that are generated by latent heating in the convective region and unsaturated evaporation-driven mesoscale descent. On the basis of residual momentum budget analysis

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Sue Chen, Maria Flatau, Tommy G. Jensen, Toshiaki Shinoda, Jerome Schmidt, Paul May, James Cummings, Ming Liu, Paul E. Ciesielski, Christopher W. Fairall, Ren-Chieh Lien, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Nan-Hsun Chi, Simon de Szoeke, and James Edson

descending branches of the MRG circulation as well as regions of enhanced surface fluxes. The positive RH anomalies form a more continuous sinusoidal pattern that connects the separate maxima located in either hemisphere. This is similar to the positive anomalies in the zonal flow component, suggesting the development of an oscillating moist low-level zonal jet structure that straddles the equatorial region. Fig . 16. A horizontal plan view of the idealized MRG structure taken at 96 h into the simulation

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